Leonard B. Bacharier, M.D.  bacharier_l@wustl.edu

Clinical Director, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine
Unit Co-Leader, Patient Oriented Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Robert C. Strunk Endowed Chair for Lung and Respiratory Research Professor of Pediatrics
Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2694

Clinical Interests

Dr. Bacharier is Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine, USA Clinical Director of the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine, and Unit Co-Leader for the Pediatric Patient Oriented Research Unit. He received his undergraduate degree in biophysics from The Johns Hopkins University, USA and his medical degree from Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Bacharier was an intern and resident in pediatrics at St. Louis Children's Hospital and a fellow in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School. He was a recipient of the 2005 Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education from Washington University School of Medicine and is a member of several organizations including the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the American Thoracic Society. Dr. Bacharier's research focuses on childhood asthma. Specifically, he is a Principal Investigator in the NHLBI-funded AsthmaNet, a multi-centered network examining therapeutic approaches to childhood asthma. He is an investigator in the NHLBI’s Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) and the Inner City Asthma Consortium’s URECA study examining the influence of urban environments on the development of asthma and allergic disorders. He is also an Investigator in the American Lung Association’s Asthma Clinical Research Center Network. Dr. Bacharier is also currently investigating the role of early infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus upon the subsequent development of asthma.

Education

  • BA, General and Department Honors, The Johns Hopkins University1988
  • MD, Washington University School of Medicine1992

Training

  • Internship and Residency, St. Louis Children's Hospital1992 - 1995
  • Fellowship , Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School 1995 - 1998

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Diplomate, National Board of Medical Examiners 1993
  • Diplomate, American Board of Pediatrics, Recertified 2002 1996
  • Diplomate, American Board of Allergy and Immunology, Recertified 2006 1997
  • MO, Medical License 1998

Honors

  • Washington University Student Research Fellowship1989
  • ACAAI Travel Grant1996
  • The Distinguished Residents and Fellows Asthma Education Program, London, England1996
  • AAAAI Travel Grant, 1997 and 19981997
  • National Institutes of Health Pediatric Research Loan Repayment Award (renewal 2004-6)2002 - 2004
  • Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2005
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2013
  • Harvey R. Colten, MD Scholar in Pediatrics2015 - 2016

Recent Publications view all (141)


  1. Severe Asthma in Children J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):889-898. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2017.04.031  PMID:28689839 
  2. A prospective microbiome-wide association study of food sensitization and food allergy in early childhood. Allergy. 2017. PMID:28632934 
  3. Asthma control status in pregnancy, body mass index, and maternal vitamin D levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28606587 
  4. Effects of Age and Disease Severity on Systemic Corticosteroid Responses in Asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(11):1439-1448. PMCID:PMC5470749  PMID:27967215 
  5. Microbes and the Role of Antibiotic Treatment for Wheezy Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17(5):34. PMID:28456910 
  6. BMAL1 links the circadian clock to viral airway pathology and asthma phenotypes. Mucosal Immunol. 2017. PMID:28401936 
  7. Strategies to alter the natural history of childhood asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):139-145. PMID:28079559 
  8. Pediatric asthma - moving ahead faster than ever. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):96-98. PMID:28225363 
  9. Management of preschool recurrent wheezing and asthma: a phenotype-based approach. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):131-138. PMID:28118241 
  10. Reducing Exposure to Mouse Allergen Among Children and Adolescents With Asthma Is Achievable, but Is It Enough? JAMA. 2017;317(10):1023-1025. PMID:28264092 
  11. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, prenatal 25(OH)D levels, race, and subsequent asthma or recurrent wheeze in offspring: Secondary analyses from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28285844 
  12. Inflammatory and Comorbid Features of Patients with Severe Asthma and Frequent Exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(3):302-313. PMCID:PMC5328178  PMID:27556234 
  13. Factors influencing the infant gut microbiome at age 3-6 months: Findings from the ethnically diverse Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(2):482-491.e14. PMCID:PMC5303123  PMID:27746239 
  14. Editorial: moving ahead faster than ever. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28141627 
  15. Patterns of immune development in urban preschoolers with recurrent wheeze and/or atopy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMCID:PMC5509531  PMID:28089873 
  16. Individualized therapy for persistent asthma in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(6):1608-1618.e12. PMCID:PMC5148729  PMID:27777180 
  17. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Invest. 2016;126(12):4702-4715. PMCID:PMC5127689  PMID:27841759 
  18. Treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma-consistent effect of anti-interleukin-5 antibodies? Lancet. 2016;388(10056):2059-2060. PMID:27609409 
  19. Distinguishing characteristics of difficult-to-control asthma in inner-city children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(4):1030-1041. PMCID:PMC5379996  PMID:27720017 
  20. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(7):619-30. PMCID:PMC5085065  PMID:27532828 
  21. Preventing Exacerbations in Preschoolers With Recurrent Wheeze: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2016;137(6). PMID:27230765 
  22. Azithromycin therapy during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: Upper airway microbiome alterations and subsequent recurrent wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27339392 
  23. Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Children--Reply. JAMA. 2016;315(19):2122-3. PMID:27187309 
  24. Daily global stress is associated with nocturnal asthma awakenings in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27246525 
  25. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D insufficient asthmatics does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol (In Press). 2016. 
  26. Early-life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):172-8. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000244  PMID:26854761 
  27. Temporal biological variability in dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults. J Immunol Methods. 2016;431:63-5. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2016.02.006  PMCID:PMC4801223  PMID:26859243 
  28. Identification of infants and preschool children at risk for asthma: predictive scores and biomarkers. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):120-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000240  PMID:26807784 
  29. Vitamin D3 therapy in patients with asthma complicated by sinonasal disease: Secondary analysis of the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1329  PMID:26971692 
  30. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016;4(1):80-90. doi:10.1002/iid3.96  PMCID:PMC4768071  PMID:27042305 
  31. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D-insufficient asthmatic patients does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.030  PMID:26874367 
  32. Effect of Prenatal Supplementation With Vitamin D on Asthma or Recurrent Wheezing in Offspring by Age 3 Years: The VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):362-70. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18589  PMID:26813209 
  33. Management of Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing: Lessons from the NHLBI's Asthma Research Networks. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(1):1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.10.003  PMCID:PMC4715860  PMID:26772922 
  34. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(12):1856-67. doi:10.1111/cea.12643  PMCID:PMC4654660  PMID:26414909 
  35. The recurrently wheezing preschool child-benign or asthma in the making? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(6):463-70. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2015.09.019  PMID:26653278 
  36. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015;314(19):2034-44. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13896  PMCID:PMC4757487  PMID:26575060 
  37. Reply: To PMID 25458910. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1135-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.013  PMID:26309182 
  38. Does azithromycin modify viral load during severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1129-31. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.06.011  PMCID:PMC4600448  PMID:26215052 
  39. Vitamin D Levels Are Unrelated to the Severity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Among Hospitalized Infants. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4(3):182-8. doi:10.1093/jpids/piu042  PMCID:PMC4554201  PMID:26336601 
  40. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(20):2033-43. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5024  PMID:26010632 
  41. Randomized trial to evaluate azithromycin's effects on serum and upper airway IL-8 levels and recurrent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(5):1171-1178.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.001  PMCID:PMC4426225  PMID:25458910 
  42. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015;15(5):20. doi:10.1007/s11882-015-0521-5  PMID:26134431 
  43. Markers of Differential Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment Among Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.01.023  PMID:25783161 
  44. Update on the utility of corticosteroids in acute pediatric respiratory disorders. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(5):332-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3865  PMCID:PMC4548893  PMID:26314814 
  45. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):765-71.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009  PMCID:PMC4568157  PMID:26164807 
  46. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142649  PMCID:PMC4654486  PMID:26587832 
  47. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):593-601.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.018  PMID:24908147 
  48. Longitudinal changes in airway remodeling and air trapping in severe asthma. Acad Radiol. 2014;21(8):986-93. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2014.05.001  PMCID:PMC4100072  PMID:25018070 
  49. Management of acute loss of asthma control in the yellow zone: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;113(2):143-59. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2014.05.017  PMID:25065350 
  50. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(6):1535-46. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.018  PMCID:PMC4088262  PMID:24636091 
  51. Early-life weight gain, prematurity, and asthma development. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1330-1. PMID:24766877 
  52. The association between vitamin D status and the rate of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1489-92, 1492.e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.024  PMCID:PMC4086617  PMID:24698320 
  53. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014;38(1):37-50. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2014.02.006  PMCID:PMC4086903  PMID:24614387 
  54. Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(20):2083-91. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5052  PMID:24838406 
  55. The relationships between environmental bacterial exposure, airway bacterial colonization, and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):137-42. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000036  PMID:24451910 
  56. Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2(4):267-76. PMID:24717623 
  57. Early weight gain and the development of asthma and atopy in children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):126-30. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000037  PMID:24451911 
  58. The challenge of treating preschool wheezing episodes: the need for evidence-based approaches. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(4):1016-7. PMCID:PMC4121115  PMID:24529412 
  59. Infection-induced wheezing in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):603-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.12.001  PMCID:PMC4086475  PMID:24636478 
  60. Predictors of asthma control and lung function responsiveness to step 3 therapy in children with uncontrolled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):350-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.07.039  PMCID:PMC3960329  PMID:24084071 
  61. Severe asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(5):489-500. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2014.06.022  PMID:25213041 
  62. Vitamin D status at birth: an important and potentially modifiable determinant of atopic disease in childhood? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(1):154-5. PMID:24001801 
  63. The role of early life viral bronchiolitis in the inception of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;13(2):211-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835eb6ef  PMID:23385289 
  64. Do oral corticosteroids reduce the severity of acute lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with recurrent wheezing? J Allergy Clin Immunol(In Press). 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.034  PMID:23498594 
  65. Intraoperative anaphylaxis secondary to intraosseous gelatin administration. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33(5):e58-60. doi:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3182857d88  PMID:23752162 
  66. Nonrespiratory symptoms before loss of asthma control in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(3):304-6.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2013.01.012  PMID:24565492 
  67. Diagnosis and management of early asthma in preschool-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):287-96; quiz 297-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.025  PMID:22664162 
  68. International consensus on (ICON) pediatric asthma. Allergy. 2012;67(8):976-97. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02865.x  PMID:22702533 
  69. Determinants of asthma after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(1):91-100.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.010  PMCID:PMC3612548  PMID:22444510 
  70. Severe asthma in childhood: recent advances in phenotyping and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(2):193-201. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835090ac  PMCID:PMC3310912  PMID:22249197 
  71. Lansoprazole for children with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307(4):373-81. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2035  PMID:22274684 
  72. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with negative oral food challenges. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(6):467-73. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3607  PMCID:PMC3522388  PMID:23394503 
  73. Step-down therapy in asthma: a focus on treatment options for patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonist combination therapy. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(1):13-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3493  PMID:22183083 
  74. Daily or intermittent budesonide in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):1990-2001. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1104647  PMCID:PMC3247621  PMID:22111718 
  75. Most nocturnal asthma symptoms occur outside of exacerbations and associate with morbidity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):977-82.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.018  PMCID:PMC3408598  PMID:21855126 
  76. Caregivers report a wide variety of early signs and symptoms of impending asthma exacerbations that are not different between preschool and school-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):1109-11.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.033  PMID:21906791 
  77. Growth of preschool children at high risk for asthma 2 years after discontinuation of fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):956-63.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.027  PMCID:PMC3224818  PMID:21820163 
  78. Evaluation of the child with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(3):690.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.034  PMID:21878246 
  79. Phenotypic expressions of childhood wheezing and asthma: implications for therapy. J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):878-884.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.01.057  PMID:21429508 
  80. Controversies in the treatment of the acutely wheezing infant. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(10):1284-5. PMCID:PMC3114055  PMID:21596826 
  81. Use of beclomethasone dipropionate as rescue treatment for children with mild persistent asthma (TREXA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9766):650-7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62145-9  PMID:21324520 
  82. Heterogeneity of severe asthma in childhood: confirmation by cluster analysis of children in the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):382-389.e1-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.015  PMCID:PMC3060668  PMID:21195471 
  83. Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):355-60. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.037  PMID:21281866 
  84. Urinary leukotriene E4/exhaled nitric oxide ratio and montelukast response in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):545-51.e1-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.008  PMCID:PMC2935914  PMID:20816189 
  85. Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio in relation to clinical and physiological parameters in asthmatic children with normal FEV1 values. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):527-34.e1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.05.016  PMCID:PMC2933964  PMID:20638110 
  86. Step-up therapy for children with uncontrolled asthma receiving inhaled corticosteroids. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(11):975-85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001278  PMCID:PMC2989902  PMID:20197425 
  87. Socioeconomic status associated with exhaled nitric oxide responses to acute stress in children with asthma. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(3):444-50. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.11.017  PMCID:PMC2826564  PMID:19961922 
  88. Relationship between infant weight gain and later asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(1 Pt 1):82-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00926.x  PMCID:PMC2887600  PMID:19725894 
  89. Viral-induced wheezing episodes in preschool children: approaches to therapy. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16(1):31-5. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32833303e6  PMID:19816178 
  90. Lower levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in peripheral blood are associated with a diagnosis of asthma 6 yr after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20(5):471-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2008.00818.x  PMCID:PMC3515331  PMID:19140903 
  91. Effect of elevated exhaled nitric oxide levels on the risk of respiratory tract illness in preschool-aged children with moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(2):108-13. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60162-7  PMID:19739422 
  92. Signs and symptoms that precede wheezing in children with a pattern of moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. J Pediatr. 2009;154(6):877-81.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.12.029  PMCID:PMC3086348  PMID:19324370 
  93. Patient characteristics associated with improved outcomes with use of an inhaled corticosteroid in preschool children at risk for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(5):1077-82, 1082.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.12.1120  PMCID:PMC2909590  PMID:19230959 
  94. Long-term budesonide or nedocromil treatment, once discontinued, does not alter the course of mild to moderate asthma in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009;154(5):682-7. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.11.036  PMCID:PMC2942076  PMID:19167726 
  95. Efficacy of esomeprazole for treatment of poorly controlled asthma. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(15):1487-99. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806290  PMCID:PMC2974569  PMID:19357404 
  96. Impulse oscillometry versus spirometry in a long-term study of controller therapy for pediatric asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(4):861-7.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.036  PMID:19070356 
  97. Phenotypic predictors of long-term response to inhaled corticosteroid and leukotriene modifier therapies in pediatric asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):411-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.11.016  PMCID:PMC2662352  PMID:19121860 
  98. Diagnosis and management of asthma in preschool and school-age children: focus on the 2007 NAEPP Guidelines. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2009;15(1):52-6. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32831da8ea  PMID:19077706 
  99. Episodic use of an inhaled corticosteroid or leukotriene receptor antagonist in preschool children with moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(6):1127-1135.e8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.09.029  PMCID:PMC2753208  PMID:18973936 
  100. Azithromycin or montelukast as inhaled corticosteroid-sparing agents in moderate-to-severe childhood asthma study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(6):1138-1144.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.09.028  PMCID:PMC2737448  PMID:18951618 
  101. Cytokine response after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in early life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(4):726-733.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.07.010  PMCID:PMC2597800  PMID:18760461 
  102. Management of asthma based on exhaled nitric oxide in addition to guideline-based treatment for inner-city adolescents and young adults: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9643):1065-72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61448-8  PMCID:PMC2610850  PMID:18805335 
  103. Management of asthma in preschool children with inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8(2):158-62. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3282f64802  PMID:18317026 
  104. Does exhaled nitric oxide measurement help distinguish between wheezing phenotypes in preschool children? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(3):710-1. PMID:18261789 
  105. Natural history of asthma: persistence versus progression-does the beginning predict the end? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(3):607-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.01.006  PMID:18328890 
  106. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in childhood: a PRACTALL consensus report. Allergy. 2008;63(1):5-34. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01586.x  PMID:18053013 
  107. Randomized comparison of strategies for reducing treatment in mild persistent asthma. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(20):2027-39. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa070013  PMID:17507702 
  108. Pediatric asthma admissions: chronic severity and acute exacerbations. J Asthma. 2007;44(4):285-9. doi:10.1080/02770900701340445  PMID:17530527 
  109. Management approaches to intermittent wheezing in young children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7(2):180-4. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32807fafd2  PMID:17351473 
  110. Severe intermittent wheezing in preschool children: a distinct phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(3):604-10. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.607  PMID:17336610 
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