Allan Doctor, M.D.

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Professor of Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine
Associate Professor, Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics
Researcher, Pathobiology
Critical Care Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2527

Clinical Interests

Dr. Doctor earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in Neurobiology (1984) and his Medical Degree (1989) at the University of Virginia. Following residency in Emergency Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, he completed additional training in Pediatrics, Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Pediatric Critical Care at The Children's Hospital, Boston. While at Harvard, Dr. Doctor’s research training focused upon novel means for the mechanical support of lung injury and for restoring lost control of regional pulmonary blood flow. Upon returning to the University of Virginia as PCCM Faculty, Dr. Doctor began to explore erythrocyte-based control of regional blood flow and made the observation that this signaling is disrupted in severe inflammatory states. This observation suggested the hypothesis that acquired injury to erythrocytes alters vascular control, regional blood flow regulation and O2 delivery homeostasis; the Doctor Lab pursues this question. He came to Washington University in 2006 as Director of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. After leading PCCM here for 10 years, Dr. Doctor stepped down as Division Director to focus upon his expanding research program, which explores the physiology of acquired red cell injury, translational transfusion medicine in the ICU setting, and development of a novel bio-synthetic artificial red cell to serve as a blood substitute. His global health projects are based in Blantyre, Malawi in collaboration with a large international malaria research group and range from mechanistic studies of infected red cell pathophysiology to clinical pathway implementation for the care of acutely ill children in resource-limited settings.


  • BA, University of Virginia1984
  • MD, University of Virginia1989


  • Resident in Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh 1989 - 1992
  • Fellow in Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital1992 - 1994
  • Resident in Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital1994 - 1996
  • Fellow in Critical Care, Boston Children's Hospital1996 - 1999

Licensure and Board Certification

  • PA, Board of Medicine, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1989 - 1992
  • National Board of Medical Examiners; Certificate # 377227, 1990
  • MA, Board of Registration in Medicine, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1992 - 2000
  • American Board of Emergency Medicine; Certificate # 920728; renewed 2004, 1994
  • American Board of Pediatrics: Certificate # 226025322; renewed 2004, 2014, 1997
  • Sub-board, Pediatric Emergency Medicine; Certificate # 920728, renewed 2008, 1997
  • VA, Virginia Board of Medicine, 1999 - 2006
  • Sub-board, Pediatric Critical Care; Certificate # 898, renewed 2009, 2016, 2000
  • MO, Missouri Board of Registration for the Healing Arts, 2006 - Pres


  • Student Research Fellowship in Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Virginia1985
  • Micromedex Prize for Best Educational Exhibit, Am. Coll. of Emergency Physicians1991
  • Ronald Steward Award for Excellence in Teaching, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA1992
  • Child Health Research Scholar, Dept. of Pediatrics, University of Virginia2001
  • Scholar's Award for Outstanding Research, Dept. of Pediatrics, University of Virginia2003
  • Battle Research Award, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia2004
  • Jury, Virginia Academy of Science2004
  • NIH/NIGMS Career Development Award (K08)2004
  • ASCI/AAP Travel Award, American Society of Clinical Investigation2005
  • Investigator, Children’s Discovery Institute2007
  • Alan Conn Visiting Professor, Department of Critical Care, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada2010
  • Best Doctors in America2013 - Pres
  • Best Doctors in Saint Louis2013 - Pres
  • AE Thompson Critical Cures Visiting Professor, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center2014
  • Open Pediatrics Visiting Professor in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital2015
  • Winner, Bear Cub Entrepreneurship Competition, Washington University in Saint Louis2015
  • Gregory Mark Taubin Visiting Professor, Children’s National Medical Center2017
  • Faculty Scholar, Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis2018 - Pres
  • Washington University Faculty Member of the Year, Skandalaris Center for Innovation2018

Recent Publications view all (106)

  1. Implementation of the Recommendations for RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S170-S176. PMCID:PMC6124312  PMID:30161073 
  2. Consensus Recommendations for RBC Transfusion Practice in Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9):884-898. PMCID:PMC6126913  PMID:30180125 
  3. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Infants and Children With Acquired and Congenital Heart Disease From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S137-S148. PMCID:PMC6126364  PMID:30161069 
  4. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in General Critically Ill Children Based on Hemoglobin and/or Physiologic Thresholds From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S98-S113. PMCID:PMC6125789  PMID:30161064 
  5. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion Support in Children With Hematologic and Oncologic Diagnoses From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S149-S156. PMCID:PMC6126910  PMID:30161070 
  6. The Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative Consensus Conference Methodology. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S93-S97. PMCID:PMC6126354  PMID:30161063 
  7. Recommendations on the Indications for RBC Transfusion for the Critically Ill Child Receiving Support From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Ventricular Assist, and Renal Replacement Therapy Devices From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S157-S162. PMCID:PMC6125786  PMID:30161071 
  8. Recommendations on RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children With Nonhemorrhagic Shock From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S121-S126. PMCID:PMC6126360  PMID:30161066 
  9. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Critically Ill Children With Acute Brain Injury From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S133-S136. PMCID:PMC6126359  PMID:30161068 
  10. Recommendations on RBC Transfusions in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S114-S120. PMCID:PMC6126368  PMID:30161065 
  11. Recommendations on Selection and Processing of RBC Components for Pediatric Patients From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S163-S169. PMCID:PMC6126365  PMID:30161072 
  12. Chest compression rates and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest survival outcomes. Resuscitation. 2018;130:159-166. PMCID:PMC6170369  PMID:30031055 
  13. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Critically Ill Children With Nonlife-Threatening Bleeding or Hemorrhagic Shock From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S127-S132. PMCID:PMC6121734  PMID:30161067 
  14. The age of blood in pediatric intensive care units (ABC PICU): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19(1):404. PMCID:PMC6064163  PMID:30055634 
  15. How to Push the Limit: Developing Informed Research and Implementation Programs in Resource-Limited Settings. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(7):680-681. PMCID:PMC6042976  PMID:29985290 
  16. Development of a Structured Outcomes Assessment and Implementation Program in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Am J Med Qual. 2018;1062860618788173. PMID:30009638 
  17. Reduction in Mortality Following Pediatric Rapid Response Team Implementation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(5):477-482. PMID:29528975 
  18. Association Between Diastolic Blood Pressure During Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Survival. Circulation. 2018;137(17):1784-1795. PMCID:PMC5916041  PMID:29279413 
  19. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of stable β6.3-Helices: Discovery of non-hemolytic antibacterial peptides. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;149:193-210. PMID:29501941 
  20. Red blood cell antibody-induced anemia causes differential degrees of tissue hypoxia in kidney and brain. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018;314(4):R611-R622. PMCID:PMC5966813  PMID:29351418 
  21. Regional oxygen extraction predicts border zone vulnerability to stroke in sickle cell disease. Neurology. 2018;90(13):e1134-e1142. PMCID:PMC5880632  PMID:29500287 
  22. Mechanisms of red blood cell transfusion-related immunomodulation. Transfusion. 2018;58(3):804-815. PMID:29383722 
  23. Red cell exchange transfusions lower cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in pediatric sickle cell anemia. Blood. 2018;131(9):1012-1021. PMCID:PMC5833262  PMID:29255068 
  24. Hypoxia modulates the purine salvage pathway and decreases red blood cell and supernatant levels of hypoxanthine during refrigerated storage. Haematologica. 2018;103(2):361-372. PMCID:PMC5792281  PMID:29079593 
  25. Cognitive Development One Year After Infantile Critical Pertussis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(2):89-97. PMCID:PMC5796844  PMID:29117060 
  26. Physiologic Impact of Circulating RBC Microparticles upon Blood-Vascular Interactions. Front Physiol. 2018;8:1120. PMCID:PMC5770796  PMID:29379445 
  27. Viral DNAemia and Immune Suppression in Pediatric Sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(1):e14-e22. PMCID:PMC5756109  PMID:29189638 
  28. Proceedings of the Food and Drug Administration's public workshop on new red blood cell product regulatory science 2016. Transfusion. 2018;58(1):255-266. PMID:29243830 
  29. Experimental assessment of oxygen homeostasis during acute hemodilution: the integrated role of hemoglobin concentration and blood pressure. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2017;5(1):12. PMCID:PMC5332316  PMID:28251580 
  30. Influence of red blood cell-derived microparticles upon vasoregulation. Blood Transfus. 2017;15(6):522-534. PMCID:PMC5649961  PMID:28686154 
  31. Transfusion Decision Making in Pediatric Critical Illness. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2017;64(5):991-1015. PMCID:PMC5664958  PMID:28941545 
  32. The American College of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Parameters for Hemodynamic Support of Pediatric and Neonatal Septic Shock: Executive Summary. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(9):884-890. PMID:28723883 
  33. Controlling Phlebotomy Volume Diminishes PICU Transfusion: Implementation Processes and Impact. Pediatrics. 2017;140(2). PMID:28701427 
  34. Identifying Risk for Acute Kidney Injury in Infants and Children Following Cardiac Arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017. PMID:28737594 
  35. The authors reply. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(7):731-732. PMCID:PMC5650071  PMID:28691971 
  36. Three Hypothetical Inflammation Pathobiology Phenotypes and Pediatric Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure Outcome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(6):513-523. PMCID:PMC5457354  PMID:28410274 
  37. American College of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Parameters for Hemodynamic Support of Pediatric and Neonatal Septic Shock. Crit Care Med. 2017;45(6):1061-1093. PMID:28509730 
  38. 2016 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's scientific priorities in pediatric transfusion medicine. Transfusion. 2017;57(6):1568-1581. PMID:28369923 
  39. Factors Associated with Bleeding and Thrombosis in Children Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017. PMID:28328243 
  40. Specific Etiologies Associated With the Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Children: Part 2. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(3_suppl Suppl 1):S58-S66. PMCID:PMC5333166  PMID:28248835 
  41. Pediatric Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: Promising Therapies. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(3_suppl Suppl 1):S67-S82. PMCID:PMC5333132  PMID:28248836 
  42. A Systemic Inflammation Mortality Risk Assessment Contingency Table for Severe Sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(2):143-150. PMCID:PMC5291785  PMID:27941423 
  43. RBC Distribution Width: Biomarker for Red Cell Dysfunction and Critical Illness Outcome? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(2):134-142. PMCID:PMC5291765  PMID:27832023 
  44. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(4):318-329. PMCID:PMC5310766  PMID:28118559 
  45. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness. Transfusion. 2017;57(1):195-206. PMID:27696473 
  46. Modulating Vascular Hemodynamics With an Alpha Globin Mimetic Peptide (HbαX). Hypertension. 2016;68(6):1494-1503. PMCID:PMC5159279  PMID:27802421 
  47. Inherent Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection in the Long Stay Critically Ill Child Without Known Baseline Immunocompromise: A Post Hoc Analysis of the CRISIS Trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(11):1182-1186. PMCID:PMC5089838  PMID:27753764 
  48. Interaction Between 2 Nutraceutical Treatments and Host Immune Status in the Pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression Comparative Effectiveness Trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016. PMID:27660289 
  49. Inherent Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection in the Long Stay Critically Ill Child Without Known Baseline Immunocompromise: A Post -Hoc Analysis of the CRISIS Trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016. PMID:27379619 
  50. Optimizing Virus Identification in Critically Ill Children Suspected of Having an Acute Severe Viral Infection. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17(4):279-86. PMID:26895562 
  51. Family Presence During Pediatric Tracheal Intubations. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(3):e154627. PMID:26954533 
  52. Recommendations for utilization of the paracorporeal lung assist device in neonates and young children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Transplant. 2016;20(2):256-70. PMID:26899454 
  53. Fentanyl and Midazolam Are Ineffective in Reducing Episodic Intracranial Hypertension in Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Crit Care Med. 2016. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001558  PMID:26757162 
  54. Incidence and Outcomes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in PICUs. Crit Care Med. 2015. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001484  PMID:26646466 
  55. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium. Transfusion. 2015;55(9):2282-90. doi:10.1111/trf.13250  PMCID:PMC4573332  PMID:26260861 
  56. End-of-Life Practices Among Tertiary Care PICUs in the United States: A Multicenter Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(7):e231-8. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000520  PMCID:PMC4562059  PMID:26335128 
  57. Simultaneous Prediction of New Morbidity, Mortality, and Survival Without New Morbidity From Pediatric Intensive Care: A New Paradigm for Outcomes Assessment. Crit Care Med. 2015. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001081  PMID:25985385 
  58. Meaning making during parent-physician bereavement meetings after a child's death. Health Psychol. 2015;34(4):453-61. doi:10.1037/hea0000153  PMCID:PMC4380228  PMID:25822059 
  59. Language Analysis as a Window to Bereaved Parents' Emotions During a Parent-Physician Bereavement Meeting. J Lang Soc Psychol. 2015;34(2):181-199. PMCID:PMC4696603  PMID:26726278 
  60. Association of bleeding and thrombosis with outcome in extracorporeal life support. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):167-74. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000317  PMID:25647124 
  61. Pediatric intensive care outcomes: development of new morbidities during pediatric critical care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014;15(9):821-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000250  PMID:25226501 
  62. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against life-threatening RT-PCR-confirmed influenza illness in US children, 2010-2012. J Infect Dis. 2014;210(5):674-83. PMID:24676207 
  63. Relationship between the functional status scale and the pediatric overall performance category and pediatric cerebral performance category scales. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(7):671-6. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5316  PMID:24862461 
  64. Citrate anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric critical care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014;15(5):471-85. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000148  PMID:24777299 
  65. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:30-4. PMID:24296434 
  66. Feasibility and perceived benefits of a framework for physician-parent follow-up meetings after a child's death in the PICU. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(1):148-57. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a26ff3  PMCID:PMC3867593  PMID:24105453 
  67. Ratio of PICU versus ward cardiopulmonary resuscitation events is increasing. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(10):2292-7. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828cf0c0  PMCID:PMC3783604  PMID:23921270 
  68. The ideal time interval for critical care severity-of-illness assessment. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(5):448-53. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31828a7270  PMCID:PMC3720693  PMID:23628831 
  69. Critical pertussis illness in children: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(4):356-65. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31828a70fe  PMCID:PMC3885763  PMID:23548960 
  70. Sickle hemoglobin disturbs normal coupling among erythrocyte O2 content, glycolysis, and antioxidant capacity. Blood. 2013;121(9):1651-62. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-02-414037  PMCID:PMC3587328  PMID:23297128 
  71. Effect of implementation of a paediatric neurocritical care programme on outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(1):45-52. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70269-7  PMID:23200264 
  72. Fatal and near-fatal asthma in children: the critical care perspective. J Pediatr. 2012;161(2):214-21.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.02.041  PMCID:PMC3402707  PMID:22494876 
  73. Evolution of surfactant protein-D levels in children with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012;47(3):292-9. doi:10.1002/ppul.21548  PMID:21901856 
  74. Critically ill children during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011;128(6):e1450-8. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0774  PMCID:PMC3387899  PMID:22065262 
  75. Nitric oxide during altitude acclimatization. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(20):1942-4. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1107887  PMCID:PMC3596889  PMID:22087700 
  76. Direct regulation of striated muscle myosins by nitric oxide and endogenous nitrosothiols. PLoS One. 2010;5(6):e11209. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011209  PMCID:PMC2887846  PMID:20585450 
  77. Fresh goat's milk for infants: myths and realities--a review. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):e973-7. PMID:20231186 
  78. Hypoxia limits antioxidant capacity in red blood cells by altering glycolytic pathway dominance. FASEB J. 2009;23(9):3159-70. doi:10.1096/fj.09-130666  PMCID:PMC2735367  PMID:19417084 
  79. SNO-hemoglobin and hypoxic vasodilation. Nat Med. 2008;14(10):1009-10. doi:10.1038/nm1008-1009a  PMID:18841128 
  80. Transnitrosation signals oxyhemoglobin desaturation. Circ Res. 2008;103(5):441-3. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.183442  PMCID:PMC2738832  PMID:18757830 
  81. Validating the genomic signature of pediatric septic shock. Physiol Genomics. 2008;34(1):127-34. PMCID:PMC2440641  PMID:18460642 
  82. Evolution of adverse changes in stored RBCs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(43):17063-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0708160104  PMCID:PMC2040393  PMID:17940021 
  83. S-nitrosothiols signal hypoxia-mimetic vascular pathology. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(9):2592-601. doi:10.1172/JCI29444  PMCID:PMC1952618  PMID:17786245 
  84. Genome-level expression profiles in pediatric septic shock indicate a role for altered zinc homeostasis in poor outcome. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30(2):146-55. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00024.2007  PMCID:PMC2770262  PMID:17374846 
  85. Functional regulation of T-type calcium channels by s-nitrosothiols in the rat thalamus. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97(4):2712-21. doi:10.1152/jn.00926.2006  PMID:17287440 
  86. Genome-level longitudinal expression of signaling pathways and gene networks in pediatric septic shock. Mol Med. 2007;13(9-10):495-508. doi:10.2119/2007-00065.Shanley  PMCID:PMC2014731  PMID:17932561 
  87. Alveolar macrophage activation is a key initiation signal for acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291(5):L1018-26. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00086.2006  PMID:16861385 
  88. Detecting physiologic fluctuations in the S-nitrosohemoglobin micropopulation: Triiodide versus 3C. Blood. 2006;108(9):3225-6. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-05-026047  PMID:17057023 
  89. Buffering airway acid decreases exhaled nitric oxide in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(4):817-22. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.06.040  PMID:17030232 
  90. S-nitrosylating agents: a novel class of compounds that increase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression and maturation in epithelial cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70(4):1435-42. doi:10.1124/mol.106.023242  PMID:16857740 
  91. Effects of nitroglycerin on erythrocyte rheology and oxygen unloading: novel role of S-nitrosohemoglobin in relieving myocardial ischemia. Circulation. 2006;113(21):2502-8. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.627091  PMID:16717147 
  92. Hemoglobin conformation couples erythrocyte S-nitrosothiol content to O2 gradients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(16):5709-14. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407490102  PMCID:PMC556285  PMID:15824313 
  93. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1. Biochem J. 2004;380(Pt 1):67-74. doi:10.1042/BJ20031687  PMCID:PMC1224145  PMID:14766015 
  94. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha from resident lung cells is a key initiating factor in pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127(2):541-7. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2003.09.008  PMID:14762366 
  95. Extended high-frequency partial liquid ventilation in lung injury: gas exchange, injury quantification, and vapor loss. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95(3):1248-58. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00598.2002  PMID:12754177 
  96. Inhaled prostacyclin for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(12):2762-4. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000038283.12739.39  PMID:12483070 
  97. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation of the perfluorocarbon-filled lung: dose-response relationships in an animal model of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(4):847-54. PMID:11373481 
  98. Optimizing intrapulmonary perfluorocarbon distribution: fluoroscopic comparison of mode of ventilation and body position. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(3):601-8. PMID:11373428 
  99. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation of the perfluorocarbon-filled lung: preliminary results in an animal model of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(11):2500-7. PMID:10579271 
  100. Pulmonary blood flow distribution during partial liquid ventilation. J Appl Physiol. 1998;84(5):1540-50. PMID:9572797 
  101. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia: historical overview, changing incidence, and recent association with varicella. Pediatrics. 1995;96(3 Pt 1):428-33. PMID:7651773 
  102. A methodology to evaluate motion of the unstable spine during intubation techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18(14):2020-3. PMID:8272952 
  103. A new compound curved needle for intradermal suture closure. J Emerg Med. 1989;7(5):441-4. PMID:2691558 
  104. Emergency medicine magnifying loupes. J Emerg Med. 1989;7(4):321-7. PMID:2600388 
  105. Evaluation of cohesive and elastic support bandages for joint immobilization. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1989;10(3):258-62. PMID:2745502 
  106. Evaluation of automatic disposable rotating cartridge skin staplers. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1988;9(5):538-46. PMID:3192614 
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