Philip C. Spinella, M.D., FCCM

Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine
Critical Care MedicinePatient Oriented Research Unit

phone: (314) 454-2527

Clinical Interests

Dr. Philip C. Spinella is the Director of the Pediatric Critical Care Translational Research Program at St. Louis Children's Hospital and Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Spinella earned his Bacelor of Arts degree in Biology (1991) at Tufts University, and his Medical Degree (1995) at New York Medical College. Following residency in Pediatrics at Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu, HI, he served as Chief of Pediatric In-patient and Outpatient Services at Bayne-Jones Army Medical Center at Fort Polk, LA (1998-2000). Dr. Spinella then completed a fellowship in Pediatric Critical Care at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (2003). After fellowship he served as teh Assistant Chief of Pediatric Critical Care at Wilford Hall Medical Center in San Antonio (2003-2007). During this time he was deployed to Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom for one year (2004-2005). It was during this deployment that Dr. Spinella's interest in the efficacy and safety of blood products for the treatment of shock and coagulopathy developed. Since this experience he has developed a research program that focuses on understanding the mechanisms related to adverse events secondary to the transfusion of blood products and perfroming clinical trials to determine the efficacy and safety of blood products. He came to Washington University in 2010 to assume leadership of the Pediatric Critical Care Translational Research Program. Dr. Spinella served 15 years in the US Army and separated as a Lieutenant Colonel in 2007. He is a veteran of the Iraq War, where he received a Bronze Star and the Combat Medic Badge for providing care under fire. In collaboration with investigators at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, his groundbreaking work in the area of treatment of hemorrhagic shock received the US Army's Best Invention Award in 2008 for his role in the development of the concept of "damage control resuscitation". Dr. Spinella co-founded and is the co-Chair of the Trauma Hemostasis and Oxugenation Research (THOR) Network, which is an international multidisciplinary network of civilian and military providers ranging from first responders/medics to critical care physicians, as well as from basic scientists to clinical trialists. Since 2011, THOR has organized and sponsored a Remote Damage Control Resuscitation annual conference with civilian and military attendees encompassing 18 countries. The conference has led to national policty changes regarding the care of patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock in the pre-hospital phase of resuscitation in countries such as Israel, Australia, Canada, France, Norway, and the United Kingdom, as well as policy changes at multiple trauma centers in the US. Dr. Spinella is a consultant to the US Army Blood Research Program at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, and the Norwegian Navy Blood Research Program. He has organized a full day conference at the White House for the National Security Service after teh Boston Marathon bombing in response to the concern for an adequate blood supply for large terrorist attacks that cause a significant number of casualties with hemorrhagic shock. This responsibility was based on his experience consulting for the Commitee on Emergency Preparedness led by Homeland Security and the Public Health Service for the Northeast Region from 2006-2008. In addition, he has also briefed the US Department of Defense on advancements in the area of trauma resuscitation. In 2015, Dr. Spinella was appointed by the Institute of Medicine as a member on the Committee of Military Trauma Care's Learning Health System and its Translation to the Civilian Sector. Dr. Spinella is also a co-founder and Chair of the Pediatric Critical Care Blood Research Network (Blood Net). Blood Net is an international network of approximately 90 members from 4 countries with a mission to improve outcomes in critically ill children by supporting and performing research in transfusion medicine, hemostasis and blood management. Dr. Spinella is a well-established investigator who ahs been awarded approximately 20 million dollars in funding from the US Department of Defense and the National Institutes of Health. Currently he is a Principal Investigator of 2 randomized controlled trials. The ABC-PICU trial examines the effect of RBC storage age on outcomes in critically ill children. The TAMPITI trial examines the immunologic effect of tranexamic acid in patients with severe traumatic injuries.


  • B.S., Tufts University1991
  • M.D., New York Medical College1995


  • Pediatric Internship, Tripler Army Medical Center1995 - 1996
  • Pediatric Residency, Tripler Army Medical Center1996 - 1998
  • Pediatric Critical Care Fellowship, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia2000 - 2003

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Pediatrics 1998
  • Pediatric Critical Care2004


  • Junior Alpha Omega Alpha1995
  • 1st Place Best, Critical Care Abstract Award, High Fidelity Medical Simulation as a method to assess retention of resuscitative skills, AAP National Conference2006
  • 2nd Place, Best Abstract, Blood product replacement effects survival in patients with massive transfusion at a combat support hospital. International Military Trauma Symposium. Koblenz, Germany2006
  • Faculty Teaching Award, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, TX2006
  • Trauma Specialty Award, SCCM 2008, Oral presentation of “Effect of blood products on mortality in combat casualties”2007
  • Trauma Specialty Award, SCCM 2009, Oral presentation of “Whole blood improves survival compared to component therapy in trauma patients”2008
  • US Army best invention award for development of hemostatic resuscitation concept for patients with traumatic injuries2008
  • Best Abstract Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2009. “A prospective randomized cross-over trial of repetitive simulation for pediatric critical illness”2009
  • Research Citation Finalist, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2010. Association between length of storage of red blood cell units and outcome of critically ill children in the TRIPICU study2009
  • Research Citation Finalist, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2010. Association between length of storage of transfused red blood cells and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in pediatric intensive care patients2009
  • Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching Acute Care, University of Connecticut Pediatric Residency Program2010
  • Presidential Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine2011
  • Presidential Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine2012

Recent Publications view all (123)

  1. Lin JC, Spinella PC, Fitzgerald JC, Tucci M, Bush JL, Nadkarni VM, Thomas NJ, Weiss SL, Sepsis Prevalence, Outcomes, and Therapy Study Investigators.. New or Progressive Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Pediatric Severe Sepsis: A Sepsis Phenotype With Higher Morbidity and Mortality. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(1):8-16. PMID:28060151  
  2. Ramirez RJ, Spinella PC, Bochicchio GV. Tranexamic Acid Update in Trauma. Crit Care Clin. 2017;33(1):85-99. PMID:27894501  
  3. Karam O, Demaret P, Duhamel A, Shefler A, Spinella PC, Stanworth SJ, Tucci M, Leteurtre S, PlasmaTV investigators.. Performance of the PEdiatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score in critically ill children requiring plasma transfusions. Ann Intensive Care. 2016;6(1):98. PMID:27714707  
  4. Said AS, Spinella PC, Hartman ME, Steffen KM, Jackups R, Holubkov R, Wallendorf M, Doctor A. RBC Distribution Width: Biomarker for Red Cell Dysfunction and Critical Illness Outcome? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016. PMID:27832023  
  5. Remy KE, Spinella PC. Red blood cell storage age - what we know from clinical trials. Expert Rev Hematol. 2016;1-3. PMID:27686118  
  6. Muszynski JA, Spinella PC, Cholette JM, Acker JP, Hall MW, Juffermans NP, Kelly DP, Blumberg N, Nicol K, Liedel J, Doctor A, Remy KE, Tucci M, Lacroix J, Norris PJ, Pediatric Critical Care Blood Research Network (Blood Net).. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness. Transfusion. 2016. PMID:27696473  
  7. Spinella PC, Cap AP. Whole blood: back to the future. Curr Opin Hematol. 2016. PMID:27607444  
  8. Hwu RS, Spinella PC, Keller MS, Baker D, Wallendorf M, Leonard JC. The effect of massive transfusion protocol implementation on pediatric trauma care. Transfusion. 2016. PMID:27572499  
  9. Gerhardt CR, Glassberg E, Holcomb JB, Mabry RL, Schreiber MB, Spinella PC. 2016 Military Supplement Tactical Study of Care Originating in the Prehospital Environment (TACSCOPE): Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on the Contemporary Battlefield. Shock. 2016. PMID:27405067  
  10. Winfield RD, Mellnick VM, Chamieh J, Nohra E, Tan WH, Ramirez R, Raptis C, Turnbull IR, Bochicchio K, Reese S, Spinella PC, Bochicchio GV. Adipose tissue location and contribution to postinjury hypercoagulability. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000001096  PMID:27120319  
  11. Pusateri AE, Given MB, Schreiber MA, Spinella PC, Pati S, Kozar RA, Khan A, Dacorta JA, Kupferer KR, Prat N, Pidcoke HF, Macdonald VW, Malloy WW, Sailliol A, Cap AP. Dried plasma: state of the science and recent developments. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S128-39. doi:10.1111/trf.13580  PMID:27100749  
  12. Doughty H, Thompson P, Cap AP, Spinella PC, Glassberg E, Skogrand Eliassen H, De Pasquale M, Strandenes G. A proposed field emergency donor panel questionnaire and triage tool. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S119-27. doi:10.1111/trf.13487  PMID:27100748  
  13. Pidcoke HF, Spinella PC. RDCR Symposium fifth-year anniversary edition: global prehospital care rooted in a history of military innovation. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S107-9. doi:10.1111/trf.13606  PMID:27100745  
  14. Spinella PC, Pidcoke HF, Strandenes G, Hervig T, Fisher A, Jenkins D, Yazer M, Stubbs J, Murdock A, Sailliol A, Ness PM, Cap AP. Whole blood for hemostatic resuscitation of major bleeding. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S190-202. doi:10.1111/trf.13491  PMID:27100756  
  15. Bjerkvig CK, Strandenes G, Eliassen HS, Spinella PC, Fosse TK, Cap AP, Ward KR. "Blood failure" time to view blood as an organ: how oxygen debt contributes to blood failure and its implications for remote damage control resuscitation. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S182-9. doi:10.1111/trf.13500  PMID:27100755  
  16. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Muench MO, Bruhn R, Gibb SL, Spinella PC, Cap AP, Cohen MJ, Pati S. Platelets regulate vascular endothelial stability: assessing the storage lesion and donor variability of apheresis platelets. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S65-75. doi:10.1111/trf.13532  PMID:27001364  
  17. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Gibb SL, Keating S, Danesh A, Beyer A, Dayter Y, Bruhn R, Muench MO, Cap AP, Norris PJ, Spinella P, Cohen M, Pati S. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S52-64. doi:10.1111/trf.13455  PMID:27001362  
  18. Gazit AZ, Sweet SC, Grady RM, Boston US, Huddleston CB, Hoganson DM, Shepard M, Raithel S, Mehegan M, Doctor A, Spinella PC, Eghtesady P. Recommendations for utilization of the paracorporeal lung assist device in neonates and young children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Transplant. 2016;20(2):256-70. doi:10.1111/petr.12673  PMID:26899454  
  19. Horst J, Leonard JC, Vogel A, Jacobs R, Spinella PC. A survey of US and Canadian hospitals' paediatric massive transfusion protocol policies. Transfus Med. 2016. doi:10.1111/tme.12277  PMID:26833998  
  20. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Cap AP. Lessons Learned for the Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock. US Army Med Dep J. 2016;(2-16):37-42. PMID:27215864  
  21. Spinella PC, Acker J. Storage Duration and Other Measures of Quality of Red Blood Cells for Transfusion. JAMA. 2015;314(23):2509-10. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.14714  PMID:26637803  
  22. Borgman MA, Spinella PC. What is the Big Deal about the BIG Score? J Pediatr. 2015;167(3):513-4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.039  PMID:26165443  
  23. Spitalnik SL, Triulzi D, Devine DV, Dzik WH, Eder AF, Gernsheimer T, Josephson CD, Kor DJ, Luban NL, Roubinian NH, Mondoro T, Welniak LA, Zou S, Glynn S, State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine Working Groups. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium. Transfusion. 2015;55(9):2282-90. PMCID:PMC4573332  PMID:26260861  
  24. Spinella PC, Frazier E, Pidcoke HF, Dietzen DJ, Pati S, Gorkun O, Aden JK, Norris PJ, Cap AP. All plasma products are not created equal: Characterizing differences between plasma products. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S18-25. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000629  PMID:26002258  
  25. Cap AP, Pidcoke HF, DePasquale M, Rappold JF, Glassberg E, Eliassen HS, Bjerkvig CK, Fosse TK, Kane S, Thompson P, Sikorski R, Miles E, Fisher A, Ward KR, Spinella PC, Strandenes G. Blood far forward: Time to get moving! J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S2-6. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000626  PMID:26002259  
  26. Camazine MN, Hemmila MR, Leonard JC, Jacobs RA, Horst JA, Kozar RA, Bochicchio GV, Nathens AB, Cryer HM, Spinella PC. Massive transfusion policies at trauma centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S48-53. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000641  PMID:26002263  
  27. Potter DR, Baimukanova G, Keating SM, Deng X, Chu JA, Gibb SL, Peng Z, Muench MO, Fomin ME, Spinella PC, Kozar R, Pati S. Fresh frozen plasma and spray-dried plasma mitigate pulmonary vascular permeability and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S7-S17. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000630  PMID:26002267  
  28. Fields ME, Hulbert ML, Chen L, Berlin AN, Jackups R, Spinella PC. Red blood cell storage duration is not associated with clinical outcomes for acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease. Transfusion. 2015;55(11):2714-2721. doi:10.1111/trf.13176  PMID:26033266  
  29. Karam O, Demaret P, Shefler A, Leteurtre S, Spinella PC, Stanworth SJ, Tucci M, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group (CCCTG), Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI), BloodNet, PlasmaTV Investigators. Indications and Effects of Plasma Transfusions in Critically Ill Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191(12):1395-1402. doi:10.1164/rccm.201503-0450OC  PMID:25859890  
  30. Inglis HC, Danesh A, Shah A, Lacroix J, Spinella PC, Norris PJ. Techniques to improve detection and analysis of extracellular vesicles using flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2015;87(11):1052-1063. doi:10.1002/cyto.a.22649  PMID:25847910  
  31. Borgman MA, Matos RI, Spinella PC. Isolated pediatric burn injury in Iraq and Afghanistan. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):e23-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000307  PMID:25560430  
  32. Neff LP, Cannon JW, Morrison JJ, Edwards MJ, Spinella PC, Borgman MA. Clearly defining pediatric massive transfusion: cutting through the fog and friction with combat data. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(1):22-8; discussion 28-9. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000488  PMID:25539199  
  33. Saini A, Hartman ME, Gage BF, Said A, Gazit AZ, Eghtesady P, Boston US, Spinella PC. Incidence of Platelet Dysfunction by Thromboelastography-Platelet Mapping in Children Supported with ECMO: A Pilot Retrospective Study. Front Pediatr. 2015;3:116. doi:10.3389/fped.2015.00116  PMCID:PMC4702183  PMID:26779465  
  34. Muszynski JA, Frazier E, Nofziger R, Nateri J, Hanson-Huber L, Steele L, Nicol K, Spinella PC, Hall MW, Pediatric Critical Care Blood Research Network (Blood Net) subgroup of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI). Red blood cell transfusion and immune function in critically ill children: a prospective observational study. Transfusion. 2014;55(4):766-774. doi:10.1111/trf.12896  PMID:25355535  
  35. Saini A, Spinella PC. Management of anticoagulation and hemostasis for pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clin Lab Med. 2014;34(3):655-73. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2014.06.014  PMID:25168949  
  36. Pidcoke HF, Spinella PC, Ramasubramanian AK, Strandenes G, Hervig T, Ness PM, Cap AP. Refrigerated platelets for the treatment of acute bleeding: a review of the literature and reexamination of current standards. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:51-3. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000078  PMID:24662779  
  37. Spinella PC, Strandenes G. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:1-2. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000059  PMID:24089006  
  38. Strandenes G, Berséus O, Cap AP, Hervig T, Reade M, Prat N, Sailliol A, Gonzales R, Simon CD, Ness P, Doughty HA, Spinella PC, Kristoffersen EK. Low titer group O whole blood in emergency situations. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:70-5. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000150  PMID:24569505  
  39. Jenkins DH, Rappold JF, Badloe JF, Berséus O, Blackbourne L, Brohi KH, Butler FK, Cap AP, Cohen MJ, Davenport R, DePasquale M, Doughty H, Glassberg E, Hervig T, Hooper TJ, Kozar R, Maegele M, Moore EE, Murdock A, Ness PM, Pati S, Rasmussen T, Sailliol A, Schreiber MA, Sunde GA, van de Watering LM, Ward KR, Weiskopf RB, White NJ, Strandenes G, Spinella PC. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:3-12. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000140  PMID:24430539  
  40. Faustino EV, Hanson S, Spinella PC, Tucci M, O'Brien SH, Nunez AR, Yung M, Truemper E, Qin L, Li S, Marohn K, Randolph AG, PROphylaxis against ThRombosis prACTice (PROTRACT) Study Investigators of the PALISI BloodNet. A multinational study of thromboprophylaxis practice in critically ill children. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(5):1232-40. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000147  PMID:24351371  
  41. Spinella PC, Doctor A. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:30-4. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000089  PMID:24296434  
  42. Strandenes G, De Pasquale M, Cap AP, Hervig TA, Kristoffersen EK, Hickey M, Cordova C, Berseus O, Eliassen HS, Fisher L, Williams S, Spinella PC. Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:76-83. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000114  PMID:24365879  
  43. Cohn SM, DeRosa M, Kumar A, Harrison C, Dent D, Sivam S, McCarthy J, Warner S, Williams S, Michalek JE, Spinella P. Impact of the age of transfused red blood cells in the trauma population: a feasibility study. Injury. 2014;45(3):605-11. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2013.07.016  PMID:24139171  
  44. Cordova CB, Cap AP, Spinella PC. Fresh whole blood transfusion for a combat casualty in austere combat environment. J Spec Oper Med. 2014;14(1):9-12. PMID:24604433  
  45. Glassberg E, Nadler R, Gendler S, Abramovich A, Spinella PC, Gerhardt RT, Holcomb JB, Kreiss Y. Freeze-dried plasma at the point of injury: from concept to doctrine. Shock. 2013;40(6):444-50. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000047  PMID:24089000  
  46. Dua A, Via KC, Kreishman P, Kragh JF Jr, Spinella PC, Patel B, Gillespie DL, Mahoney P, Fox CJ. Early management of pediatric vascular injuries through humanitarian surgical care during U.S. military operations. J Vasc Surg. 2013;58(3):695-700. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2013.02.034  PMID:23683379  
  47. Matos MR, Watson RS, Nadkarni VM, Huang HH, Berg RA, Carroll CL, Berens RJ, Praestgaard A, Weissfeld L, Spinella PC. Response to letters regarding article, “Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests". Circulation. 2013;128(7):e102-3. PMID:24137625  
  48. Brockamp T, Maegele M, Gaarder C, Goslings JC, Cohen MJ, Lefering R, Joosse P, Naess PA, Skaga NO, Groat T, Eaglestone S, Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Schreiber MA, Brohi K. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries. Crit Care. 2013;17(4):R134. doi:10.1186/cc12813  PMID:23844754  
  49. Strandenes G, Skogrand H, Spinella PC, Hervig T, Rein EB. Donor performance of combat readiness skills of special forces soldiers are maintained immediately after whole blood donation: a study to support the development of a prehospital fresh whole blood transfusion program. Transfusion. 2013;53(3):526-30. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03767.x  PMID:22738468  
  50. Spinella PC. The blind physicians and the elephant on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(2):231-3. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31827451ea  PMID:23388574  
  51. Faustino EV, Spinella PC, Li S, Pinto MG, Stoltz P, Tala J, Card ME, Northrup V, Baker KE, Goodman TR, Chen L, Silva CT. Incidence and acute complications of asymptomatic central venous catheter-related deep venous thrombosis in critically ill children. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):387-91. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.06.059  PMCID:PMC3575007  PMID:22883418  
  52. Matos RI, Watson RS, Nadkarni VM, Huang HH, Berg RA, Meaney PA, Carroll CL, Berens RJ, Praestgaard A, Weissfeld L, Spinella PC, American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines–Resuscitation (Formerly the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) Investigators. Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. Circulation. 2013;127(4):442-51. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.125625  PMID:23339874  
  53. Gerhardt RT, Strandenes G, Cap AP, Rentas FJ, Glassberg E, Mott J, Dubick MA, Spinella PC, THOR Network and RemTORN Study Groups. Remote damage control resuscitation and the Solstrand Conference: defining the need, the language, and a way forward. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:9S-16S. doi:10.1111/trf.12030  PMID:23301981  
  54. Strandenes G, Cap AP, Cacic D, Lunde TH, Eliassen HS, Hervig T, Spinella PC. Blood Far Forward--a whole blood research and training program for austere environments. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:124S-130S. doi:10.1111/trf.12046  PMID:23301964  
  55. Kipfmueller F, Wyen H, Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Wirth S, Maegele M. [Epidemiology, risk stratification and outcome of severe pediatric trauma]. Klin Padiatr. 2013;225(1):34-40. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1329945  PMID:23203384  
  56. Nessen SC, Eastridge BJ, Cronk D, Craig RM, Berséus O, Ellison R, Remick K, Seery J, Shah A, Spinella PC. Fresh whole blood use by forward surgical teams in Afghanistan is associated with improved survival compared to component therapy without platelets. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:107S-113S. doi:10.1111/trf.12044  PMID:23301962  
  57. Wataha K, Menge T, Deng X, Shah A, Bode A, Holcomb JB, Potter D, Kozar R, Spinella PC, Pati S. Spray-dried plasma and fresh frozen plasma modulate permeability and inflammation in vitro in vascular endothelial cells. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:80S-90S. doi:10.1111/trf.12040  PMID:23301978  
  58. Strandenes G, Spinella PC. The Solstrand remote damage control resuscitation symposium. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:6S-8S. doi:10.1111/trf.12029  PMID:23301976  
  59. Peiniger S, Paffrath T, Mutschler M, Brockamp T, Borgmann M, Spinella PC, Bouillon B, Maegele M, TraumaRegister DGU. The trauma patient in hemorrhagic shock: how is the C-priority addressed between emergency and ICU admission? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012;20:78. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-20-78  PMCID:PMC3546869  PMID:23199212  
  60. Borgman M, Matos RI, Blackbourne LH, Spinella PC. Ten years of military pediatric care in Afghanistan and Iraq. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S509-13. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318275477c  PMID:23192078  
  61. Pidcoke HF, Aden JK, Mora AG, Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Dubick MA, Blackbourne LH, Cap AP. Ten-year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: increased plasma and platelet use correlates with improved survival. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S445-52. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182754796  PMID:23192068  
  62. Maegele M, Spinella PC, Schöchl H. The acute coagulopathy of trauma: mechanisms and tools for risk stratification. Shock. 2012;38(5):450-8. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31826dbd23  PMID:23042192  
  63. Valentine SL, Sapru A, Higgerson RA, Spinella PC, Flori HR, Graham DA, Brett M, Convery M, Christie LM, Karamessinis L, Randolph AG, Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigator's (PALISI) Network, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Research Network (ARDSNet). Fluid balance in critically ill children with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(10):2883-9. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825bc54d  PMCID:PMC3455114  PMID:22824936  
  64. Spinella PC, Reddy HL, Jaffe JS, Cap AP, Goodrich RP. Fresh whole blood use for hemorrhagic shock: preserving benefit while avoiding complications. Anesth Analg. 2012;115(4):751-8. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e318261f40e  PMID:22763908  
  65. Cap AP, Spinella PC, Borgman MA, Blackbourne LH, Perkins JG. Timing and location of blood product transfusion and outcomes in massively transfused combat casualties. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(2 Suppl 1):S89-94. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318260625a  PMID:22847102  
  66. Doctor A, Spinella P. Effect of processing and storage on red blood cell function in vivo. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36(4):248-59. doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2012.04.005  PMCID:PMC3404625  PMID:22818545  
  67. Peiniger S, Nienaber U, Lefering R, Braun M, Wafaisade A, Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Maegele M, Trauma Registry of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie. Glasgow Coma Scale as a predictor for hemocoagulative disorders after blunt pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13(4):455-60. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31823893c5  PMID:22422166  
  68. Spinella PC, Dunne J, Beilman GJ, O'Connell RJ, Borgman MA, Cap AP, Rentas F. Constant challenges and evolution of US military transfusion medicine and blood operations in combat. Transfusion. 2012;52(5):1146-53. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03594.x  PMID:22575063  
  69. Patregnani JT, Borgman MA, Maegele M, Wade CE, Blackbourne LH, Spinella PC. Coagulopathy and shock on admission is associated with mortality for children with traumatic injuries at combat support hospitals. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13(3):273-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31822f1727  PMID:21926654  
  70. Maegele M, Brockamp T, Nienaber U, Probst C, Schoechl H, Görlinger K, Spinella P. Predictive Models and Algorithms for the Need of Transfusion Including Massive Transfusion in Severely Injured Patients. Transfus Med Hemother. 2012;39(2):85-97. doi:000337243  PMCID:PMC3364090  PMID:22670126  
  71. Popp J, Yochum L, Spinella PC, Donahue S, Finck C. Simulation training for surgical residents in pediatric trauma scenarios. Conn Med. 2012;76(3):159-62. PMID:22666976  
  72. Spinella PC, Strandenes G, Rein EB, Seghatchian J, Hervig T. Symposium on fresh whole blood for severe hemorrhagic shock: from in-hospital to far forward resuscitations. Transfus Apher Sci. 2012;46(1):113-7. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2012.01.002  PMID:22300839  
  73. Inaba K, Branco BC, Rhee P, Blackbourne LH, Holcomb JB, Spinella PC, Shulman I, Nelson J, Demetriades D. Impact of the duration of platelet storage in critically ill trauma patients. J Trauma. 2011;71(6):1766-73; discussion 1773-4. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31823bdbf9  PMID:22182887  
  74. Holcomb JB, Zarzabal LA, Michalek JE, Kozar RA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Matijevic N, Dong JF, Pati S, Wade CE, Trauma Outcomes Group, Holcomb JB, Wade CE, Cotton BA, Kozar RA, Brasel KJ, Vercruysse GA, MacLeod JB, Dutton RP, Hess JR, Duchesne JC, McSwain NE, Muskat PC, Johannigamn JA, Cryer HM, Tillou A, Cohen MJ, Pittet JF, Knudson P, DeMoya MA, Schreiber MA, Tieu BH, Brundage SI, Napolitano LM, Brunsvold ME, Sihler KC, Beilman GJ, Peitzman AB, Zenati MS, Sperry JL, Alarcon LH, Croce MA, Minei JP, Steward RM, Cohn SM, Michalek JE, Bulger EM, Nunez TC, Ivatury RR, Meredith JW, Miller PR, Pomper GJ, Marin B. Increased platelet:RBC ratios are associated with improved survival after massive transfusion. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 3):S318-28. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318227edbb  PMID:21814099  
  75. Levi M, Fries D, Gombotz H, van der Linden P, Nascimento B, Callum JL, Bélisle S, Rizoli S, Hardy JF, Johansson PI, Samama CM, Grottke O, Rossaint R, Henny CP, Goslings JC, Theusinger OM, Spahn DR, Ganter MT, Hess JR, Dutton RP, Scalea TM, Levy JH, Spinella PC, Panzer S, Reesink HW. Prevention and treatment of coagulopathy in patients receiving massive transfusions. Vox Sang. 2011;101(2):154-74. doi:10.1111/j.1423-0410.2011.01472.x  PMID:21749403  
  76. Brasel KJ, Vercruysse G, Spinella PC, Wade CE, Blackbourne LH, Borgman MA, Zarzabal LA, Du F, Perkins JG, Maegele M, Schreiber M, Hess JR, Jastrow KM 3rd, Gonzalez EA, Holcomb JB, Kozar R, Trauma Outcomes Group, Brasel KJ, Vercruysse G, MacLeod J, Dutton RP, Duchesne JC, McSwain NE, Muskat P, Johannigamn J, Cryer HM, Cryer HM, Pittet JF, Knudson P, De Moya MA, Tieu B, Brundage S, Napolitano LM, Brunsvold M, Sihler KC, Beilman G, Peitzman AB, Zenait MS, Sperry J, Alarcon L, Croce MA, Minei JP, Stewart RM, Cohn SM, Mickalek JE, Bulger EM, Cotton BA, Nunez TC, Ivatury R, Meredith JW, Miller P, Pomper GJ, Marin B. The association of blood component use ratios with the survival of massively transfused trauma patients with and without severe brain injury. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 3):S343-52. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318227ef2d  PMID:21814102  
  77. Spinella PC, Doctor A, Blumberg N, Holcomb JB. Does the storage duration of blood products affect outcomes in critically ill patients? Transfusion. 2011;51(8):1644-50. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03245.x  PMID:21831180  
  78. Barbosa RR, Rowell SE, Sambasivan CN, Diggs BS, Spinella PC, Schreiber MA, Trauma Outcomes Group, Holcomb JB, Wade CE, Brasel KJ, Vercruysse G, MacLeod J, Dutton RP, Hess JR, Duchesne JC, McSwain NE, Muskat P, Johannigamn J, Cryer HM, Tillou A, Cohen MJ, Pittet JF, Knudson P, De Moya MA, Schreiber MA, Tieu B, Brundage S, Napolitano LM, Brunsvold M, Sihler KC, Beilman G, Peitzman AB, Zenait MS, Sperry J, Alarcon L, Croce MA, Minei JP, Kozar R, Gonzalez EA, Stewart RM, Cohn SM, Mickalek JE, Bulger EM, Cotton BA, Nunez TC, Ivatury R, Meredith JW, Pomper GJ, Marin B. A predictive model for mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 3):S370-4. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318227f18f  PMID:21814106  
  79. Cap AP, Spinella PC. Severity of head injury is associated with increased risk of coagulopathy in combat casualties. J Trauma. 2011;71(1 Suppl):S78-81. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182218cd8  PMID:21795882  
  80. Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Holcomb JB, Blackbourne LH, Wade CE, Lefering R, Bouillon B, Maegele M. The effect of FFP:RBC ratio on morbidity and mortality in trauma patients based on transfusion prediction score. Vox Sang. 2011;101(1):44-54. doi:10.1111/j.1423-0410.2011.01466.x  PMCID:PMC3155292  PMID:21438884  
  81. Spinella PC, Sparrow RL, Hess JR, Norris PJ. Properties of stored red blood cells: understanding immune and vascular reactivity. Transfusion. 2011;51(4):894-900. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03103.x  PMCID:PMC3081134  PMID:21496052  
  82. Borgman MA, Maegele M, Wade CE, Blackbourne LH, Spinella PC. Pediatric trauma BIG score: predicting mortality in children after military and civilian trauma. Pediatrics. 2011;127(4):e892-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2439  PMID:21422095  
  83. Perkins JG, Cap AP, Spinella PC, Shorr AF, Beekley AC, Grathwohl KW, Rentas FJ, Wade CE, Holcomb JB, 31st Combat Support Hospital Research Group. Comparison of platelet transfusion as fresh whole blood versus apheresis platelets for massively transfused combat trauma patients (CME). Transfusion. 2011;51(2):242-52. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02818.x  PMID:20796254  
  84. Peiniger S, Nienaber U, Lefering R, Braun M, Wafaisade A, Wutzler S, Borgmann M, Spinella PC, Maegele M, Trauma Registry of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie. Balanced massive transfusion ratios in multiple injury patients with traumatic brain injury. Crit Care. 2011;15(1):R68. doi:10.1186/cc10048  PMCID:PMC3222001  PMID:21342499  
  85. Katsios C, Griffith L, Spinella P, Lacroix J, Crowther M, Hebert P, Meade M, Geerts W, Rabbat C, Cook D. Red blood cell transfusion and increased length of storage are not associated with deep vein thrombosis in medical and surgical critically ill patients: a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2011;15(6):R263. doi:10.1186/cc10526  PMCID:PMC3388665  PMID:22044745  
  86. Spinella PC, Dressler A, Tucci M, Carroll CL, Rosen RS, Hume H, Sloan SR, Lacroix J, Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators Network. Survey of transfusion policies at US and Canadian children's hospitals in 2008 and 2009. Transfusion. 2010;50(11):2328-35. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02708.x  PMID:20529008  
  87. Gauvin F, Spinella PC, Lacroix J, Choker G, Ducruet T, Karam O, Hébert PC, Hutchison JS, Hume HA, Tucci M, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group and the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network. Association between length of storage of transfused red blood cells and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in pediatric intensive care patients. Transfusion. 2010;50(9):1902-13. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02661.x  PMID:20456697  
  88. Martin JE, Teff RJ, Spinella PC. Care of pediatric neurosurgical patients in Iraq in 2007: clinical and ethical experience of a field hospital. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6(3):250-6. doi:10.3171/2010.6.PEDS1031  PMID:20809709  
  89. Wade CE, Eastridge BJ, Jones JA, West SA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Dubick MA, Blackbourne LH, Holcomb JB. Use of recombinant factor VIIa in US military casualties for a five-year period. J Trauma. 2010;69(2):353-9. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e49059  PMID:20699744  
  90. Larson CR, White CE, Spinella PC, Jones JA, Holcomb JB, Blackbourne LH, Wade CE. Association of shock, coagulopathy, and initial vital signs with massive transfusion in combat casualties. J Trauma. 2010;69 Suppl 1:S26-32. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e423f4  PMID:20622616  
  91. Dressler AM, Finck CM, Carroll CL, Bonanni CC, Spinella PC. Use of a massive transfusion protocol with hemostatic resuscitation for severe intraoperative bleeding in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45(7):1530-3. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.03.023  PMID:20638538  
  92. Carroll CL, Spinella PC, Corsi JM, Stoltz P, Zucker AR. Emergent endotracheal intubations in children: be careful if it's late when you intubate. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11(3):343-8. PMID:20464775  
  93. Karam O, Tucci M, Bateman ST, Ducruet T, Spinella PC, Randolph AG, Lacroix J. Association between length of storage of red blood cell units and outcome of critically ill children: a prospective observational study. Crit Care. 2010;14(2):R57. doi:10.1186/cc8953  PMCID:PMC2887178  PMID:20377853  
  94. Holcomb JB, Spinella PC. Optimal use of blood in trauma patients. Biologicals. 2010;38(1):72-7. doi:10.1016/j.biologicals.2009.10.007  PMCID:PMC3126656  PMID:20074980  
  95. Spinella PC, Holcomb JB. Resuscitation and transfusion principles for traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Blood Rev. 2009;23(6):231-40. doi:10.1016/j.blre.2009.07.003  PMCID:PMC3159517  PMID:19695750  
  96. Fuenfer MM, Spinella PC, Naclerio AL, Creamer KM. The U.S. military wartime pediatric trauma mission: how surgeons and pediatricians are adapting the system to address the need. Mil Med. 2009;174(9):887-91. PMID:19780362  
  97. Perkins JG, Cap AP, Spinella PC, Blackbourne LH, Grathwohl KW, Repine TB, Ketchum L, Waterman P, Lee RE, Beekley AC, Sebesta JA, Shorr AF, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. An evaluation of the impact of apheresis platelets used in the setting of massively transfused trauma patients. J Trauma. 2009;66(4 Suppl):S77-84; discussion S84-5. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31819d8936  PMID:19359974  
  98. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Beekley AC, Holcomb JB. Warm fresh whole blood is independently associated with improved survival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(4 Suppl):S69-76. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31819d85fb  PMCID:PMC3126655  PMID:19359973  
  99. Beekley AC, Martin MJ, Spinella PC, Telian SP, Holcomb JB. Predicting resource needs for multiple and mass casualty events in combat: lessons learned from combat support hospital experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom. J Trauma. 2009;66(4 Suppl):S129-37. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31819d85e7  PMID:19359956  
  100. Nylund CM, Borgman MA, Holcomb JB, Jenkins D, Spinella PC. Thromboelastography to direct the administration of recombinant activated factor VII in a child with traumatic injury requiring massive transfusion. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(2):e22-6. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31819bb939  PMID:19265363  
  101. Spinella PC, Carroll CL, Staff I, Gross R, Mc Quay J, Keibel L, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. Duration of red blood cell storage is associated with increased incidence of deep vein thrombosis and in hospital mortality in patients with traumatic injuries. Crit Care. 2009;13(5):R151. doi:10.1186/cc8050  PMCID:PMC2784373  PMID:19772604  
  102. Matos RI, Holcomb JB, Callahan C, Spinella PC. Increased mortality rates of young children with traumatic injuries at a US army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, 2004. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):e959-66. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1244  PMID:18977963  
  103. Holcomb JB, Wade CE, Michalek JE, Chisholm GB, Zarzabal LA, Schreiber MA, Gonzalez EA, Pomper GJ, Perkins JG, Spinella PC, Williams KL, Park MS. Increased plasma and platelet to red blood cell ratios improves outcome in 466 massively transfused civilian trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2008;248(3):447-58. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318185a9ad  PMID:18791365  
  104. Allibhai TF, Spinella PC, Meyer MT, Hall BH, Kofos D, DiGeronimo RJ. Survival after prolonged pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for adenoviral pneumonia. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43(8):e9-e11. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.03.065  PMID:18675627  
  105. Grathwohl KW, Black IH, Spinella PC, Sweeney J, Robalino J, Helminiak J, Grimes J, Gullick R, Wade CE. Total intravenous anesthesia including ketamine versus volatile gas anesthesia for combat-related operative traumatic brain injury. Anesthesiology. 2008;109(1):44-53. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31817c02e3  PMID:18580171  
  106. Spinella PC. Warm fresh whole blood transfusion for severe hemorrhage: U.S. military and potential civilian applications. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(7 Suppl):S340-5. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817e2ef9  PMID:18594261  
  107. Spinella PC, Borgman MA, Azarow KS. Pediatric trauma in an austere combat environment. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(7 Suppl):S293-6. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817da99f  PMID:18594255  
  108. Niles SE, McLaughlin DF, Perkins JG, Wade CE, Li Y, Spinella PC, Holcomb JB. Increased mortality associated with the early coagulopathy of trauma in combat casualties. J Trauma. 2008;64(6):1459-63; discussion 1463-5. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318174e8bc  PMID:18545109  
  109. Stinger HK, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Salinas J, Martini WZ, Hess JR, Dubick MA, Simon CD, Beekley AC, Wolf SE, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. The ratio of fibrinogen to red cells transfused affects survival in casualties receiving massive transfusions at an army combat support hospital. J Trauma. 2008;64(2 Suppl):S79-85; discussion S85. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318160a57b  PMID:18376176  
  110. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Beekley AC, Niles SE, McLaughlin DF, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. Effect of plasma and red blood cell transfusions on survival in patients with combat related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2008;64(2 Suppl):S69-77; discussion S77-8. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318160ba2f  PMID:18376175  
  111. Burnett MW, Spinella PC, Azarow KS, Callahan CW. Pediatric care as part of the US Army medical mission in the global war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq, December 2001 to December 2004. Pediatrics. 2008;121(2):261-5. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-3666  PMID:18245416  
  112. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, McLaughlin DF, Niles SE, Grathwohl KW, Beekley AC, Salinas J, Mehta S, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. The effect of recombinant activated factor VII on mortality in combat-related casualties with severe trauma and massive transfusion. J Trauma. 2008;64(2):286-93; discussion 293-4. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318162759f  PMID:18301188  
  113. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Repine T, Beekley AC, Sebesta J, Jenkins D, Azarow K, Holcomb JB, 31st CSH Research Working Group. Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital. World J Surg. 2008;32(1):2-6. doi:10.1007/s00268-007-9201-5  PMID:17990028  
  114. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Repine T, Beekley AC, Sebesta J, Jenkins D, Azarow K, Holcomb JB, 31st Combat Support Hospital Research Working Group. Risks associated with fresh whole blood and red blood cell transfusions in a combat support hospital. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(11):2576-81. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000285996.65226.A9  PMID:17828033  
  115. Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Grathwohl KW, Repine T, Beekley AC, Sebesta J, Jenkins D, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusions at a combat support hospital. J Trauma. 2007;63(4):805-13. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181271ba3  PMID:18090009  
  116. Spinella PC, Priestley MA. Damage control mechanical ventilation: ventilator induced lung injury and lung protective strategies in children. J Trauma. 2007;62(6 Suppl):S82-3. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318065b21f  PMID:17556998  
  117. Holcomb JB, Jenkins D, Rhee P, Johannigman J, Mahoney P, Mehta S, Cox ED, Gehrke MJ, Beilman GJ, Schreiber M, Flaherty SF, Grathwohl KW, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Beekley AC, McMullin NR, Park MS, Gonzalez EA, Wade CE, Dubick MA, Schwab CW, Moore FA, Champion HR, Hoyt DB, Hess JR. Damage control resuscitation: directly addressing the early coagulopathy of trauma. J Trauma. 2007;62(2):307-10. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3180324124  PMID:17297317  
  118. McGuigan R, Spinella PC, Beekley A, Sebesta J, Perkins J, Grathwohl K, Azarow K. Pediatric trauma: experience of a combat support hospital in Iraq. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42(1):207-10. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.09.020  PMID:17208567  
  119. Srinivasan V, Spinella PC, Drott HR, Roth CL, Helfaer MA, Nadkarni V. Association of timing, duration, and intensity of hyperglycemia with intensive care unit mortality in critically ill children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004;5(4):329-36. PMID:15215001  
  120. Rajendra A, Spinella PC, Drott HR, Dominguez TE, Sutton L, Helfaer M. S-100beta protein--serum levels in children with brain neoplasms and its potential as a tumor marker. J Neurooncol. 2004;67(3):345-9. PMID:15164991  
  121. Spinella PC, Donoghue A, Rajendra A, Drott HR, Dominguez TE, Helfaer M. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of S-100beta in children and its elevation in pediatric meningitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004;5(1):53-7. doi:10.1097/01.PCC.0000102221.98378.7D  PMID:14697109  
  122. Spinella PC, Dominguez T, Drott HR, Huh J, McCormick L, Rajendra A, Argon J, McIntosh T, Helfaer M. S-100beta protein-serum levels in healthy children and its association with outcome in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(3):939-45. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000053644.16336.52  PMID:12627009  
  123. Spinella PC, Strieper MJ, Callahan CW. Congestive heart failure in a neonate secondary to bilateral intralobar and extralobar pulmonary sequestrations. Pediatrics. 1998;101(1 Pt 1):120-4. PMID:9417164  
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