Philip C. Spinella, M.D., FCCM  pspinella@wustl.edu

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Professor of Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine
Critical Care Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2527

Clinical Interests

Dr. Philip C. Spinella is the Director of the Pediatric Critical Care Translational Research Program at St. Louis Children's Hospital and Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Spinella earned his Bacelor of Arts degree in Biology (1991) at Tufts University, and his Medical Degree (1995) at New York Medical College. Following residency in Pediatrics at Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu, HI, he served as Chief of Pediatric In-patient and Outpatient Services at Bayne-Jones Army Medical Center at Fort Polk, LA (1998-2000). Dr. Spinella then completed a fellowship in Pediatric Critical Care at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (2003). After fellowship he served as teh Assistant Chief of Pediatric Critical Care at Wilford Hall Medical Center in San Antonio (2003-2007). During this time he was deployed to Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom for one year (2004-2005). It was during this deployment that Dr. Spinella's interest in the efficacy and safety of blood products for the treatment of shock and coagulopathy developed. Since this experience he has developed a research program that focuses on understanding the mechanisms related to adverse events secondary to the transfusion of blood products and perfroming clinical trials to determine the efficacy and safety of blood products. He came to Washington University in 2010 to assume leadership of the Pediatric Critical Care Translational Research Program. Dr. Spinella served 15 years in the US Army and separated as a Lieutenant Colonel in 2007. He is a veteran of the Iraq War, where he received a Bronze Star and the Combat Medic Badge for providing care under fire. In collaboration with investigators at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, his groundbreaking work in the area of treatment of hemorrhagic shock received the US Army's Best Invention Award in 2008 for his role in the development of the concept of "damage control resuscitation". Dr. Spinella co-founded and is the co-Chair of the Trauma Hemostasis and Oxugenation Research (THOR) Network, which is an international multidisciplinary network of civilian and military providers ranging from first responders/medics to critical care physicians, as well as from basic scientists to clinical trialists. Since 2011, THOR has organized and sponsored a Remote Damage Control Resuscitation annual conference with civilian and military attendees encompassing 18 countries. The conference has led to national policty changes regarding the care of patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock in the pre-hospital phase of resuscitation in countries such as Israel, Australia, Canada, France, Norway, and the United Kingdom, as well as policy changes at multiple trauma centers in the US. Dr. Spinella is a consultant to the US Army Blood Research Program at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, and the Norwegian Navy Blood Research Program. He has organized a full day conference at the White House for the National Security Service after teh Boston Marathon bombing in response to the concern for an adequate blood supply for large terrorist attacks that cause a significant number of casualties with hemorrhagic shock. This responsibility was based on his experience consulting for the Commitee on Emergency Preparedness led by Homeland Security and the Public Health Service for the Northeast Region from 2006-2008. In addition, he has also briefed the US Department of Defense on advancements in the area of trauma resuscitation. In 2015, Dr. Spinella was appointed by the Institute of Medicine as a member on the Committee of Military Trauma Care's Learning Health System and its Translation to the Civilian Sector. Dr. Spinella is also a co-founder and Chair of the Pediatric Critical Care Blood Research Network (Blood Net). Blood Net is an international network of approximately 90 members from 4 countries with a mission to improve outcomes in critically ill children by supporting and performing research in transfusion medicine, hemostasis and blood management. Dr. Spinella is a well-established investigator who ahs been awarded approximately 20 million dollars in funding from the US Department of Defense and the National Institutes of Health. Currently he is a Principal Investigator of 2 randomized controlled trials. The ABC-PICU trial examines the effect of RBC storage age on outcomes in critically ill children. The TAMPITI trial examines the immunologic effect of tranexamic acid in patients with severe traumatic injuries.

Education

  • BS, Tufts University1991
  • MD, New York Medical College1995

Training

  • Pediatric Internship, Tripler Army Medical Center1995 - 1996
  • Pediatric Residency, Tripler Army Medical Center1996 - 1998
  • Pediatric Critical Care Fellowship, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia2000 - 2003

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Pediatrics 1998
  • Pediatric Critical Care 2004

Honors

  • Junior Alpha Omega Alpha1995
  • 1st Place Best, Critical Care Abstract Award, High Fidelity Medical Simulation as a method to assess retention of resuscitative skills, AAP National Conference2006
  • 2nd Place, Best Abstract, Blood product replacement effects survival in patients with massive transfusion at a combat support hospital. International Military Trauma Symposium. Koblenz, Germany2006
  • Faculty Teaching Award, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, TX2006
  • Trauma Specialty Award, SCCM 2008, Oral presentation of “Effect of blood products on mortality in combat casualties”2007
  • Trauma Specialty Award, SCCM 2009, Oral presentation of “Whole blood improves survival compared to component therapy in trauma patients”2008
  • US Army best invention award for development of hemostatic resuscitation concept for patients with traumatic injuries2008
  • Best Abstract Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2009. “A prospective randomized cross-over trial of repetitive simulation for pediatric critical illness”2009
  • Research Citation Finalist, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2010. Association between length of storage of red blood cell units and outcome of critically ill children in the TRIPICU study2009
  • Research Citation Finalist, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2010. Association between length of storage of transfused red blood cells and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in pediatric intensive care patients2009
  • Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching Acute Care, University of Connecticut Pediatric Residency Program2010
  • Presidential Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine2011
  • Presidential Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine2012

Recent Publications view all (182)


  1. In silico model of the dilutional effects of conventional component therapy versus whole blood in the management of massively bleeding adult trauma patients. Transfusion. 2019;59(1):146-158. PMID:30414181 
  2. Washing or filtering of blood products does not improve outcome in a rat model of trauma and multiple transfusion. Transfusion. 2019;59(1):134-145. PMID:30461025 
  3. Application of a recursive partitioning decision tree algorithm for the prediction of massive transfusion in civilian trauma: the MTPitt prediction tool. Transfusion. 2018. PMID:30548461 
  4. The use of whole blood in US military operations in Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan since the introduction of low-titer Type O whole blood: feasibility, acceptability, challenges. Transfusion. 2018. PMID:30548277 
  5. Effects of ABO Matching of Platelet Transfusions in Critically Ill Children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018. PMID:30422914 
  6. Vox Sanguinis International Forum on the use of prehospital blood products and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of patients with traumatic hemorrhage. Vox Sang. 2018;113(8):816-830. PMID:30345514 
  7. Paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome incidence and epidemiology (PARDIE): an international, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2018. PMID:30361119 
  8. The use of low-titer group O whole blood for the resuscitation of civilian trauma patients in 2018. Transfusion. 2018. PMID:30284266 
  9. Damage Control Resuscitation in Prolonged Field CareDamage Control Resuscitation in Prolonged Field Care. J Spec Oper Med. 2018;18(3):109-119. PMID:30222848 
  10. Blood manufacturing methods affect red blood cell product characteristics and immunomodulatory activity. Blood Adv. 2018;2(18):2296-2306. PMCID:PMC6156888  PMID:30217795 
  11. Mortality prediction in pediatric trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 2018. PMID:30270118 
  12. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in General Critically Ill Children Based on Hemoglobin and/or Physiologic Thresholds From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S98-S113. PMCID:PMC6125789  PMID:30161064 
  13. Implementation of the Recommendations for RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S170-S176. PMCID:PMC6124312  PMID:30161073 
  14. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion Support in Children With Hematologic and Oncologic Diagnoses From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S149-S156. PMCID:PMC6126910  PMID:30161070 
  15. Recommendations on the Indications for RBC Transfusion for the Critically Ill Child Receiving Support From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Ventricular Assist, and Renal Replacement Therapy Devices From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S157-S162. PMCID:PMC6125786  PMID:30161071 
  16. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Critically Ill Children With Nonlife-Threatening Bleeding or Hemorrhagic Shock From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S127-S132. PMCID:PMC6121734  PMID:30161067 
  17. Whole Blood Transfusion. Mil Med. 2018;183(suppl_2):44-51. PMID:30189061 
  18. Damage Control Resuscitation. Mil Med. 2018;183(suppl_2):36-43. PMID:30189070 
  19. Recommendations on Selection and Processing of RBC Components for Pediatric Patients From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S163-S169. PMCID:PMC6126365  PMID:30161072 
  20. Recommendations on RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children With Nonhemorrhagic Shock From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S121-S126. PMCID:PMC6126360  PMID:30161066 
  21. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Critically Ill Children With Acute Brain Injury From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S133-S136. PMCID:PMC6126359  PMID:30161068 
  22. Consensus Recommendations for RBC Transfusion Practice in Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9):884-898. PMCID:PMC6126913  PMID:30180125 
  23. Recommendations on RBC Transfusions in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S114-S120. PMCID:PMC6126368  PMID:30161065 
  24. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Infants and Children With Acquired and Congenital Heart Disease From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S137-S148. PMCID:PMC6126364  PMID:30161069 
  25. The Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative Consensus Conference Methodology. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S93-S97. PMCID:PMC6126354  PMID:30161063 
  26. Vox Sanguinis International Forum on the use of prehospital blood products and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of patients with traumatic haemorrhage. Vox Sang. 2018. PMID:30144091 
  27. The age of blood in pediatric intensive care units (ABC PICU): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19(1):404. PMCID:PMC6064163  PMID:30055634 
  28. Editors' preface to the THOR 2018 supplement. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018;84(6S Suppl 1):S1-S2. PMID:29799822 
  29. Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network position paper on the role of hypotensive resuscitation as part of remote damage control resuscitation. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018;84(6S Suppl 1):S3-S13. PMID:29799823 
  30. Granulocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Activate Monocytes and Are Associated With Mortality in Intensive Care Unit Patients. Front Immunol. 2018;9:956. PMCID:PMC5951932  PMID:29867942 
  31. Platelet Transfusion Practices in Critically Ill Children. Crit Care Med. 2018. PMID:29727368 
  32. Hemoglobin Levels Across the Pediatric Critical Care Spectrum: A Point Prevalence Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(5):e227-e234. PMID:29384892 
  33. Critical developments of 2017: a review of the literature from selected topics in transfusion. A committee report from the AABB Clinical Transfusion Medicine Committee. Transfusion. 2018;58(4):1065-1075. PMID:29520794 
  34. Effects of Platelet Sparing Leukocyte Reduction and Agitation Methods on In Vitro Measures of Hemostatic Function in Cold-Stored Whole Blood. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018. PMID:29554042 
  35. The evolution of pediatric transfusion practice during combat operations 2001-2013. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018. PMID:29554046 
  36. Preparation of leukoreduced whole blood for transfusion in austere environments; effects of forced filtration, storage agitation, and high temperatures on hemostatic function. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018. PMID:29538232 
  37. The Design of an Adaptive Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Platelets Stored at Low-Temperature in Surgical Patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018. PMID:29521797 
  38. Blood transfusion management in the severely bleeding military patient. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2018. PMID:29470190 
  39. Immunomodulatory Effects of Plasma Products on Monocyte Function in vitro. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018. PMID:29401191 
  40. Mechanisms of red blood cell transfusion-related immunomodulation. Transfusion. 2018. PMID:29383722 
  41. How do I implement a whole blood program for massively bleeding patients? Transfusion. 2018. PMID:29332316 
  42. Advanced Resuscitative Care in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: TCCC Guidelines Change 18-01:14 October 2018. J Spec Oper Med. 2018;18(4):37-55. PMID:30566723 
  43. Activities of the THOR-AABB working party. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:29287058 
  44. Raising the Standards on Whole Blood. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:29283965 
  45. Proceedings of the Food and Drug Administration's public workshop on new red blood cell product regulatory science 2016. Transfusion. 2017. PMID:29243830 
  46. Use of Uncrossmatched Erythrocytes in Emergency Bleeding Situations. Anesthesiology. 2017. PMID:29251646 
  47. Just chill-it's worth it! Transfusion. 2017;57(12):2817-2820. PMID:29226373 
  48. Who's afraid of incompatible plasma? A balanced approach to the safe transfusion of blood products containing ABO-incompatible plasma. Transfusion. 2017. PMID:29193106 
  49. Prehospital hemostatic resuscitation to achieve zero preventable deaths after traumatic injury. Curr Opin Hematol. 2017. PMID:28832355 
  50. Controlling Phlebotomy Volume Diminishes PICU Transfusion: Implementation Processes and Impact. Pediatrics. 2017;140(2). PMID:28701427 
  51. The research agenda for trauma critical care. Intensive Care Med. 2017. PMID:28756471 
  52. The authors reply. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(5):501-502. PMCID:PMC5506827  PMID:28475543 
  53. Editors' Preface. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:28362684 
  54. 2016 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's scientific priorities in pediatric transfusion medicine. Transfusion. 2017. PMID:28369923 
  55. Outcomes Related to the Use of Frozen Plasma or Pooled Solvent/Detergent-Treated Plasma in Critically Ill Children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017. PMID:28350560 
  56. Immunologic effects of trauma and transfusion. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:28333832 
  57. Zero preventable deaths after traumatic injury: An achievable goal. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:28333835 
  58. RBC Distribution Width: Biomarker for Red Cell Dysfunction and Critical Illness Outcome? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(2):134-142. PMCID:PMC5291765  PMID:27832023 
  59. Factors influencing plasma transfusion practices in paediatric intensive care units around the world. Vox Sang. 2017;112(2):140-149. PMID:28176380 
  60. Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Infections: The Ventilator-Associated INfection Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(1):e24-e34. PMID:27828898 
  61. New or Progressive Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Pediatric Severe Sepsis: A Sepsis Phenotype With Higher Morbidity and Mortality. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(1):8-16. PMID:28060151 
  62. Tranexamic Acid Update in Trauma. Crit Care Clin. 2017;33(1):85-99. PMID:27894501 
  63. Performance of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score in critically ill children requiring plasma transfusions. Ann Intensive Care. 2016;6(1):98. PMCID:PMC5053948  PMID:27714707 
  64. Red blood cell storage age - what we know from clinical trials. Expert Rev Hematol. 2016;1-3. PMID:27686118 
  65. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness. Transfusion. 2016. PMID:27696473 
  66. Whole blood: back to the future. Curr Opin Hematol. 2016. PMID:27607444 
  67. The effect of massive transfusion protocol implementation on pediatric trauma care. Transfusion. 2016. PMID:27572499 
  68. 2016 Military Supplement Tactical Study of Care Originating in the Prehospital Environment (TACSCOPE): Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on the Contemporary Battlefield. Shock. 2016. PMID:27405067 
  69. Adipose tissue location and contribution to postinjury hypercoagulability. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000001096  PMID:27120319 
  70. Dried plasma: state of the science and recent developments. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S128-39. doi:10.1111/trf.13580  PMID:27100749 
  71. A proposed field emergency donor panel questionnaire and triage tool. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S119-27. doi:10.1111/trf.13487  PMID:27100748 
  72. Whole blood for hemostatic resuscitation of major bleeding. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S190-202. doi:10.1111/trf.13491  PMID:27100756 
  73. RDCR Symposium fifth-year anniversary edition: global prehospital care rooted in a history of military innovation. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S107-9. doi:10.1111/trf.13606  PMID:27100745 
  74. "Blood failure" time to view blood as an organ: how oxygen debt contributes to blood failure and its implications for remote damage control resuscitation. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S182-9. doi:10.1111/trf.13500  PMID:27100755 
  75. Recommendations for utilization of the paracorporeal lung assist device in neonates and young children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Transplant. 2016;20(2):256-70. doi:10.1111/petr.12673  PMID:26899454 
  76. Platelets regulate vascular endothelial stability: assessing the storage lesion and donor variability of apheresis platelets. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S65-75. doi:10.1111/trf.13532  PMID:27001364 
  77. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S52-64. doi:10.1111/trf.13455  PMID:27001362 
  78. A survey of US and Canadian hospitals' paediatric massive transfusion protocol policies. Transfus Med. 2016. doi:10.1111/tme.12277  PMID:26833998 
  79. Lessons Learned for the Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock. US Army Med Dep J. 2016;(2-16):37-42. PMID:27215864 
  80. Storage Duration and Other Measures of Quality of Red Blood Cells for Transfusion. JAMA. 2015;314(23):2509-10. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.14714  PMID:26637803 
  81. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium. Transfusion. 2015;55(9):2282-90. PMCID:PMC4573332  PMID:26260861 
  82. What is the Big Deal about the BIG Score? J Pediatr. 2015;167(3):513-4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.039  PMID:26165443 
  83. All plasma products are not created equal: Characterizing differences between plasma products. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S18-25. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000629  PMID:26002258 
  84. Blood far forward: Time to get moving! J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S2-6. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000626  PMID:26002259 
  85. Massive transfusion policies at trauma centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S48-53. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000641  PMID:26002263 
  86. Fresh frozen plasma and spray-dried plasma mitigate pulmonary vascular permeability and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S7-S17. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000630  PMID:26002267 
  87. Red blood cell storage duration is not associated with clinical outcomes for acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease. Transfusion. 2015;55(11):2714-2721. doi:10.1111/trf.13176  PMID:26033266 
  88. Indications and Effects of Plasma Transfusions in Critically Ill Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191(12):1395-1402. doi:10.1164/rccm.201503-0450OC  PMID:25859890 
  89. Techniques to improve detection and analysis of extracellular vesicles using flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2015;87(11):1052-1063. doi:10.1002/cyto.a.22649  PMID:25847910 
  90. Isolated pediatric burn injury in Iraq and Afghanistan. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):e23-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000307  PMID:25560430 
  91. Incidence of Platelet Dysfunction by Thromboelastography-Platelet Mapping in Children Supported with ECMO: A Pilot Retrospective Study. Front Pediatr. 2015;3:116. doi:10.3389/fped.2015.00116  PMCID:PMC4702183  PMID:26779465 
  92. Clearly defining pediatric massive transfusion: cutting through the fog and friction with combat data. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(1):22-8; discussion 28-9. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000488  PMID:25539199 
  93. Red blood cell transfusion and immune function in critically ill children: a prospective observational study. Transfusion. 2014;55(4):766-774. doi:10.1111/trf.12896  PMID:25355535 
  94. Management of anticoagulation and hemostasis for pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clin Lab Med. 2014;34(3):655-73. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2014.06.014  PMID:25168949 
  95. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:1-2. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000059  PMID:24089006 
  96. Low titer group O whole blood in emergency situations. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:70-5. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000150  PMID:24569505 
  97. Refrigerated platelets for the treatment of acute bleeding: a review of the literature and reexamination of current standards. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:51-3. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000078  PMID:24662779 
  98. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:3-12. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000140  PMID:24430539 
  99. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:30-4. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000089  PMID:24296434 
  100. A multinational study of thromboprophylaxis practice in critically ill children. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(5):1232-40. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000147  PMID:24351371 
  101. Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:76-83. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000114  PMID:24365879 
  102. Impact of the age of transfused red blood cells in the trauma population: a feasibility study. Injury. 2014;45(3):605-11. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2013.07.016  PMID:24139171 
  103. Fresh whole blood transfusion for a combat casualty in austere combat environment. J Spec Oper Med. 2014;14(1):9-12. PMID:24604433 
  104. Freeze-dried plasma at the point of injury: from concept to doctrine. Shock. 2013;40(6):444-50. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000047  PMID:24089000 
  105. Early management of pediatric vascular injuries through humanitarian surgical care during U.S. military operations. J Vasc Surg. 2013;58(3):695-700. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2013.02.034  PMID:23683379 
  106. Response to letters regarding article, “Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests". Circulation. 2013;128(7):e102-3. PMID:24137625 
  107. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries. Crit Care. 2013;17(4):R134. doi:10.1186/cc12813  PMID:23844754 
  108. Donor performance of combat readiness skills of special forces soldiers are maintained immediately after whole blood donation: a study to support the development of a prehospital fresh whole blood transfusion program. Transfusion. 2013;53(3):526-30. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03767.x  PMID:22738468 
  109. The blind physicians and the elephant on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(2):231-3. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31827451ea  PMID:23388574 
  110. Incidence and acute complications of asymptomatic central venous catheter-related deep venous thrombosis in critically ill children. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):387-91. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.06.059  PMCID:PMC3575007  PMID:22883418 
  111. Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. Circulation. 2013;127(4):442-51. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.125625  PMID:23339874 
  112. Blood Far Forward--a whole blood research and training program for austere environments. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:124S-130S. doi:10.1111/trf.12046  PMID:23301964 
  113. Remote damage control resuscitation and the Solstrand Conference: defining the need, the language, and a way forward. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:9S-16S. doi:10.1111/trf.12030  PMID:23301981 
  114. Fresh whole blood use by forward surgical teams in Afghanistan is associated with improved survival compared to component therapy without platelets. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:107S-113S. doi:10.1111/trf.12044  PMID:23301962 
  115. Spray-dried plasma and fresh frozen plasma modulate permeability and inflammation in vitro in vascular endothelial cells. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:80S-90S. doi:10.1111/trf.12040  PMID:23301978 
  116. The Solstrand remote damage control resuscitation symposium. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:6S-8S. doi:10.1111/trf.12029  PMID:23301976 
  117. [Epidemiology, risk stratification and outcome of severe pediatric trauma]. Klin Padiatr. 2013;225(1):34-40. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1329945  PMID:23203384 
  118. The trauma patient in hemorrhagic shock: how is the C-priority addressed between emergency and ICU admission? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012;20:78. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-20-78  PMCID:PMC3546869  PMID:23199212 
  119. Ten years of military pediatric care in Afghanistan and Iraq. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S509-13. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318275477c  PMID:23192078 
  120. Ten-year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: increased plasma and platelet use correlates with improved survival. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S445-52. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182754796  PMID:23192068 
  121. The acute coagulopathy of trauma: mechanisms and tools for risk stratification. Shock. 2012;38(5):450-8. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31826dbd23  PMID:23042192 
  122. Fluid balance in critically ill children with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(10):2883-9. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825bc54d  PMCID:PMC3455114  PMID:22824936 
  123. Fresh whole blood use for hemorrhagic shock: preserving benefit while avoiding complications. Anesth Analg. 2012;115(4):751-8. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e318261f40e  PMID:22763908 
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