Barbara B. Warner, M.D.

Professor of Pediatrics, Newborn Medicine
Newborn MedicinePathobiology

phone: (314) 454-6148

Clinical Interests

Our current research interests include 1) the effect of the neonatal microbiome on health and disease, with emphasis on necrotizing enterocolitis, and 2) the role of epidermal growth factor on preterm infant gut development including prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis


  • B.S., University of Dayton1976
  • MSc, Epidemiology University of Massachusetts1981
  • M.D., University of Cincinnati1985


  • Resident, Children’s Hospital Medical Center1985 - 1988
  • Neonatal - Perinatal Fellowship, University of Cincinnati1988 - 1991
  • William Cooper Procter Research Scholar, Children’s Hospital Medical Center1991 - 1994

Licensure and Board Certification

  • OH, Medical License
  • MO, Medical License
  • Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine2008
  • Neonatal Resuscitation Program2012


  • Most Breast Feeding Supportive Physician, Ohio March 20042004 - 2004
  • “Best Doctors”- Cincinnati2005 - 2007
  • Cincinnati Business Courier’s 2007 Health Care Heroes Award2007 - 2007
  • “Best Doctors" in America2011 - 2016
  • “Best Doctors”-St Louis2011 - 2016

Recent Publications view all (40)

  1. Gasparrini AJ, Crofts TS, Gibson MK, Tarr PI, Warner BB, Dantas G. Antibiotic perturbation of the preterm infant gut microbiome and resistome. Gut Microbes. 2016;7(5):443-9. PMID:27472377  
  2. Reich PJ, Boyle MG, Hogan PG, Johnson AJ, Wallace MA, Elward AM, Warner BB, Burnham CA, Fritz SA. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the neonatal intensive care unit: an infection prevention and patient safety challenge. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22(7):645.e1-8. PMCID:PMC4987169  PMID:27126609  
  3. Planer JD, Peng Y, Kau AL, Blanton LV, Ndao IM, Tarr PI, Warner BB, Gordon JI. Development of the gut microbiota and mucosal IgA responses in twins and gnotobiotic mice. Nature. 2016;534(7606):263-6. PMCID:PMC4902178  PMID:27279225  
  4. Warner BB, Deych E, Zhou Y, Hall-Moore C, Weinstock GM, Sodergren E, Shaikh N, Hoffmann JA, Linneman LA, Hamvas A, Khanna G, Rouggly-Nickless LC, Ndao IM, Shands BA, Escobedo M, Sullivan JE, Radmacher PG, Shannon WD, Tarr PI. Gut bacteria dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a prospective case-control study. Lancet. 2016;387(10031):1928-36. PMID:26969089  
  5. Gibson MK, Wang B, Ahmadi S, Burnham CA, Tarr PI, Warner BB, Dantas G. Developmental dynamics of the preterm infant gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:16024. PMCID:PMC5031140  PMID:27572443  
  6. Lim ES, Zhou Y, Zhao G, Bauer IK, Droit L, Ndao IM, Warner BB, Tarr PI, Wang D, Holtz LR. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants. Nat Med. 2015;21(10):1228-34. doi:10.1038/nm.3950  PMID:26366711  
  7. Julian S, Burnham CA, Sellenriek P, Shannon WD, Hamvas A, Tarr PI, Warner BB. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;1-10. doi:10.1017/ice.2015.144  PMID:26108888  
  8. Chung, WK., Martin, K., Jalas, C., Braddock, S., Juusola, J., Monaghan, KG., Warner, BB., Franks, S., Yudkoff, M., Lulis, L., Rhodes, RH., Prasad, V., Torti, E., Cho, MT., Shinawi, M. Mutations in COQ4, an Essential Component of Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis, Cause Lethal Neonatal Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy - Accepted, pending publication J Med Genet. 2015. 
  9. Gurnee EA, Ndao IM, Johnson JR, Johnston BD, Gonzalez MD, Burnham CA, Hall-Moore CM, McGhee JE, Mellmann A, Warner BB, Tarr PI. Gut Colonization of Healthy Children and Their Mothers With Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 2015. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiv278  PMID:25969564  
  10. Moore AM, Ahmadi S, Patel S, Gibson MK, Wang B, Ndao IM, Deych E, Shannon W, Tarr PI, Warner BB, Dantas G. Erratum: Gut resistome development in healthy twin pairs in the first year of life. Microbiome. 2015;3:29. PMCID:PMC4511998  PMID:26207183  
  11. Sommovilla J, Zhou Y, Sun RC, Choi PM, Diaz-Miron J, Shaikh N, Sodergren E, Warner BB, Weinstock GM, Tarr PI, Warner BW. Small bowel resection induces long-term changes in the enteric microbiota of mice. J Gastrointest Surg. 2014. doi:10.1007/s11605-014-2631-0  PMID:25183407  
  12. La Rosa PS, Warner BB, Zhou Y, Weinstock GM, Sodergren E, Hall-Moore CM, Stevens HJ, Bennett WE Jr, Shaikh N, Linneman LA, Hoffmann JA, Hamvas A, Deych E, Shands BA, Shannon WD, Tarr PI. Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(34):12522-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1409497111  PMCID:PMC4151715  PMID:25114261  
  13. Carl MA, Ndao IM, Springman AC, Manning SD, Johnson JR, Johnston BD, Burnham CA, Weinstock ES, Weinstock GM, Wylie TN, Mitreva M, Abubucker S, Zhou Y, Stevens HJ, Hall-Moore C, Julian S, Shaikh N, Warner BB, Tarr PI. Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(9):1211-8. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu084  PMCID:PMC3982840  PMID:24647013  
  14. Gurnee EA, Ndao IM, McGhee JE, Warner BB, Tarr PI, Fritz SA, Burnham CA. Fecal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in healthy children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(2):1261-2. doi:10.1128/AAC.02466-13  PMCID:PMC3910844  PMID:24277049  
  15. Melamed R, Storch GA, Warner BB, Tarr PI. Gastrointestinal viruses were not found as an aetiology of culture-negative illness in NICU patients. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-303807  PMID:23563694  
  16. Zhou Y, Gao H, Mihindukulasuriya KA, La Rosa PS, Wylie KM, Vishnivetskaya T, Podar M, Warner B, Tarr PI, Nelson DE, Fortenberry JD, Holland MJ, Burr SE, Shannon WD, Sodergren E, Weinstock GM. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body. Genome Biol. 2013;14(1):R1. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-1-r1  PMCID:PMC4054670  PMID:23316946  
  17. McPherson C, Warner B, Hunstad DA, Elward A, Acosta EP. Oseltamivir dosing in premature infants. J Infect Dis. 2012;206(6):847-50. doi:10.1093/infdis/jis471  PMCID:PMC3572879  PMID:22807525  
  18. Yatsunenko T, Rey FE, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Dominguez-Bello MG, Contreras M, Magris M, Hidalgo G, Baldassano RN, Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Warner B, Reeder J, Kuczynski J, Caporaso JG, Lozupone CA, Lauber C, Clemente JC, Knights D, Knight R, Gordon JI. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature. 2012;486(7402):222-7. doi:10.1038/nature11053  PMCID:PMC3376388  PMID:22699611  
  19. González-Rivera R, Culverhouse RC, Hamvas A, Tarr PI, Warner BB. The age of necrotizing enterocolitis onset: an application of Sartwell's incubation period model. J Perinatol. 2011;31(8):519-23. doi:10.1038/jp.2010.193  PMCID:PMC3145821  PMID:21273988  
  20. Bucher BT, McDuffie LA, Shaikh N, Tarr PI, Warner BB, Hamvas A, White FV, Erwin CR, Warner BW. Bacterial DNA content in the intestinal wall from infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(6):1029-33. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.03.026  PMCID:PMC3118995  PMID:21683193  
  21. Morrow AL, Meinzen-Derr J, Huang P, Schibler KR, Cahill T, Keddache M, Kallapur SG, Newburg DS, Tabangin M, Warner BB, Jiang X. Fucosyltransferase 2 non-secretor and low secretor status predicts severe outcomes in premature infants. J Pediatr. 2011;158(5):745-51. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.10.043  PMCID:PMC3412418  PMID:21256510  
  22. Odibo AO, Najaf T, Vachharajani A, Warner B, Mathur A, Warner BW. Predictors of the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a center's 10-year experience. Prenat Diagn. 2010;30(6):518-21. doi:10.1002/pd.2508  PMID:20509150  
  23. Bennett WE Jr, González-Rivera R, Shaikh N, Magrini V, Boykin M, Warner BB, Hamvas A, Tarr PI. A method for isolating and analyzing human mRNA from newborn stool. J Immunol Methods. 2009;349(1-2):56-60. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2009.07.013  PMCID:PMC2850193  PMID:19660464  
  24. Warner BB, Ryan AL, Seeger K, Leonard AC, Erwin CR, Warner BW. Ontogeny of salivary epidermal growth factor and necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr. 2007;150(4):358-63. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.11.059  PMID:17382110  
  25. Warner B, Brown, B, Kocoshis S, Wessel, JButler, D, Donovan E. Evidence-based Care Guideline for Medical Management of Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Risk for NEC National Guideline Clearinghouse. Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. US DHSS. 2005. 
  26. Geraghty SR, Davidson BS, Warner BB, Sapsford AL, Ballard JL, List BA, Akers R, Morrow AL. The development of a research human milk bank. J Hum Lact. 2005;21(1):59-66. doi:10.1177/0890334404273162  PMID:15681638  
  27. Altimier L, Eichel M, Warner B. Changing the NICU Physically and Behaviorally to Promote Patient Outcomes and Contain Costs Neonatal Intensive Care : The Journal of Perinatolgy - Neonatology. 2004;17(2):35-39. 
  28. Sherrod J, Warner B, Altimier L. Designing and Monitoring an RN-Based PICC Team Neonatal Intensive Care : The Journal of Perinatology - Neonatology. 2004;17(2):19-21. 
  29. Warner BB, Sapsford A. Misappropriated Human Milk: Fantasy, Fear, and Fact Regarding Infectious Risk Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2004;4(1):56-61. 
  30. Warner B, Musial MJ, Chenier T, Donovan E. The effect of birth hospital type on the outcome of very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2004;113(1 Pt 1):35-41. PMID:14702444  
  31. Warner BB, Altimier L, Imhoff S. Clinical Excellence for High Risk Neonates: Improved Perinatal Regionalization Through Coordinated Maternal and Neonatal Transport Neonatal Intensive Care : The Journal of Perinatology-Neonatology . 2002;15(6):33-38. 
  32. Warner BB, Kiely JL, Donovan EF. Multiple births and outcome. Clin Perinatol. 2000;27(2):347-61, ix. PMID:10863654  
  33. Altimier L, Warner B, Amlung S, Kenner C. Neonatal thermoregulation: bed surface transfers. Neonatal Netw. 1999;18(4):35-8. doi:10.1891/0730-0832.18.4.35  PMID:10633683  
  34. Warner BB, Stuart LA, Papes RA, Wispé JR. Functional and pathological effects of prolonged hyperoxia in neonatal mice. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(1 Pt 1):L110-7. PMID:9688942  
  35. Warner BB, Stuart L, Gebb S, Wispé JR. Redox regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase. Am J Physiol. 1996;271(1 Pt 1):L150-8. PMID:8760145  
  36. Warner B, Papes R, Heile M, Spitz D, Wispé J. Expression of human Mn SOD in Chinese hamster ovary cells confers protection from oxidant injury. Am J Physiol. 1993;264(6 Pt 1):L598-605. PMID:8333551  
  37. Wispé JR, Warner BB, Clark JC, Dey CR, Neuman J, Glasser SW, Crapo JD, Chang LY, Whitsett JA. Human Mn-superoxide dismutase in pulmonary epithelial cells of transgenic mice confers protection from oxygen injury. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(33):23937-41. PMID:1385428  
  38. Warner BB, Wispé JR. Free radical-mediated diseases in pediatrics. Semin Perinatol. 1992;16(1):47-57. PMID:1574724  
  39. Warner BB, Burhans MS, Clark JC, Wispé JR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases Mn-SOD expression: protection against oxidant injury. Am J Physiol. 1991;260(4 Pt 1):L296-301. PMID:1850207  
  40. Wispé JR, Clark JC, Warner BB, Fajardo D, Hull WE, Holtzman RB, Whitsett JA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits expression of pulmonary surfactant protein. J Clin Invest. 1990;86(6):1954-60. doi:10.1172/JCI114929  PMCID:PMC329831  PMID:2123888  
Wash U School of Medicine
Children's Hospital St. Louis
Children's Discovery Institute
© 2017 by Washington University in St. Louis
One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130