Kenneth E. Remy, M.D., MHSc., MSCI, FCCM

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Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine
Associate Professor, Pulmonary and Critical Care
Pulmonary and Critical CareCritical Care MedicineDepartment of Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2527

Clinical Interests

Dr. Remy is an Associate Professor and NIH funded physician-scientist at Washington University in St. Louis in the Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, and an international expert in adult and pediatric sepsis. As an adult and pediatric critical care physician, his laboratory is focused on two areas: heme-based trafficking and signaling in immune dysregulation in context of diseases of intravascular hemolysis (COVID, sepsis, malaria, sickle cell disease, thalassemia) and after red blood cell transfusion; and real time immunophenotyping of pro and hypoinflammatory states to identify timing for immunoadjuvant therapies.During the COVID-19 pandemic, Dr. Remy has cared for over fifteen hundred patients in the adult and pediatric ICU while pivoting his laboratory activities to understanding the evolution of the disease in both a hematologic and immune functional approach. Dr. Remy in collaboration with Dr. Richard Hotchkiss were among the first in world to demonstrate a covid-19 immunosuppressive phenotype demonstrating significant T cell exhaustion in patients with critical illness. Dr. Remy's first authored manuscript on care of adults in the pediatric ICU was the featured article in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. He has been featured on a number of news programs including CNN, CBS Evening News, BBC News, People Magazine, NBC News, Reuters, USA today, and many other local and international news stations on his experiences during this pandemic and speaking on the immunologic consequences of disease, pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), public health measures and schools, and potential therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Dr. Remy sits on a number of national and international task forces in sepsis and COVID including the NIH, BARDA, FDA, CDC, and many others. Dr. Remy has authored over 75 peer reviewed manuscripts, textbook chapters, and invited commentaries. He is the chair of the basic and translational science research section for the society of critical care medicine (SCCM); the largest society for critical care practitioners in the world with over 25,000 members. Additionally, he is the immunology chair for the pediatric acute lung injury and sepsis investigators blood network, and holds key leadership positions in many other organizations including executive committee of the research section of SCCM and member at large for the Internal Medicine section of SCCM. He has been honored as a fellow in the American College of Critical Care Medicine and fellow in the society of Pediatric Research.

Prior to Washington University: Dr. Remy holds a Medical Degree from Jefferson Medical College and Masters’ Degrees from Duke University (Clinical Research) and Washington University in St. Louis (Translational Research; immunology focus). He completed dual residencies in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics at Case Western University/University Hospitals of Cleveland/Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, Pediatric Critical Care fellowship at New York Presbyterian Hospital-Columbia University in New York City, and Adult Critical Care Fellowship at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. He is quadruple boarded in each of these specialties. Additionally, he is formally trained in Global Health and emergency and disaster preparedness; and has received a certificate of clinical research from the National Institutes of Health. He is also the medical director (ICU captain) for Heart Care International’s Medical Missions and global health chair for the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network. Dr. Remy’s has clinical interests in both adults and children in bioethics, international health, humor therapy, and palliative care. Previous research has been in calcium activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle and in therapeutics to bacillus anthracis induced shock. His research interests are in host inflammatory response in sepsis.


  • BS, Advanced Honors Certificate, The University of Delaware1999
  • BA, Advanced Honors Certificate, The University of Delaware1999
  • MD, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University2004
  • MSc, Duke University2015
  • MSCI, Washington University2020


  • Internal Medicine and Pediatrics Combined Residency, Case Medical Center; University Hospitals of Cleveland; Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital2004 - 2008
  • Global Health Track Training Certificate, Case Western University, School of Medicine2004 - 2008
  • Management of Humanitarian Emergencies: Focus on Children and Families, Case Western School of Medicine2008 - 2008
  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship, Columbia University School of Medicine; New York Presbyterian Hospital2008 - 2011
  • Adult Critical Care Medicine Fellowship, The National Institutes of Health2011 - 2013
  • Clinical Research Training Certificate With Commendation, The National Insitutes of Health2012 - 2014
  • Critical Care Medicine Postdoctoral Clinical Research Fellowship , National Institutes of Health2013 - 2015

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 2008 - PresNY, New York State Office of the Professions; Medical Board
  • 2009 - 2029American Board of Internal Medicine; Internal Medicine
  • 2009 - 2024American Board of Pediatrics; General Pediatrics
  • 2012 - PresAdult Advanced Cardiac Life Support
  • 2012 - PresPediatric Advanced LIfe Support
  • 2012 - PresMD, Maryland Board of Physicians
  • 2012 - 2016Adult Trauma Life Support
  • 2013 - 2024American Board of Internal Medicine; Critical Care Medicine
  • 2014 - 2021American Board of Pediatrics; Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
  • 2015 - PresMO, Missouri Healing Arts

Honors and Awards

  • University Hospitals of Cleveland "UH IDOL" Semifinalist2006
  • Gary Onady National Internal Medicine-Pediatrics Award Recipient2007
  • Who's Who Among American Doctors2007
  • America's Top Pediatricians2007 - 2015
  • Rainbow Ambulatory Practice Senior Resident Award2008
  • Co-Chief Fellow (Selected Position), Columbia University School of Physicians and Surgeons/New York Presbyterian Hospital, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine2010 - 2011
  • Who's Who Among American Pediatricians2011 - 2015
  • The National Institutes of Health Intramural Loan l Repayment Program Award2011 - 2015
  • Chair; Clinical Fellows Committee (Selected Position), The National Institutes of Health2012 - 2014
  • Who's Who Among American Physicians2012 - 2015
  • Chair; Fellow Committee (Selected Position), The National Institutes of Health2012 - 2014
  • National Food and Drug Regulatory Science Symposium First Place Research Award (Top Award)2013
  • The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Director's Award Recipient2013
  • The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2014 David C. Leach Award Recipient2015
  • American Thoracic Society; Critical Care Section Scientific Abstract Award2015
  • The National Institutes of Health Extramural Loan l Repayment Program Award2016 - Pres
  • American Thoracic Society Foundation Research Recognition for Early Career Investigators2016 - Pres
  • St. Louis Children's Hospital; Children's Direct Triple Crown Award2017
  • SCCM Weil Research Grant Award2018
  • The Society of Pediatric Research (SPR) Membership2019 - Pres
  • American College of Critical Care Fellow (FCCM)2020 - Pres
  • Fellowship in the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) of the Society of Critical Care Medicine2020 - Pres
  • Society for Pediatric Research Member Induction2020 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (72)

Publication Co-Authors

  1. IL-7 Immunotherapy in a Nonimmunocompromised Patient With Intractable Fungal Wound Sepsis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021;8(6):ofab256. PMCID:PMC8231366  PMID:34189174 
  2. Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Pandemic Spawning an Infodemic. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021. PMID:34034307 
  3. In Vitro-Administered Dexamethasone Suppresses T Cell Function With Reversal by Interleukin-7 in Coronavirus Disease 2019. Crit Care Explor. 2021;3(4):e0378. PMCID:PMC8021361  PMID:33834168 
  4. Finding ways for children's doctors to care for big 'Kids' and save adults in a pandemic Arch Dis Child .. 2021. doi:doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2021-321628.  PMID:33785528 
  5. Changes in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Utilization and Clinical Trends during the Coronavirus Pandemic. Chest. 2021. PMCID:PMC7954775  PMID:33727033 
  6. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus 2 Infection and Organ Dysfunction in the ICU: Opportunities for Translational Research. Crit Care Explor. 2021;3(3):e0374. PMCID:PMC7994036  PMID:33786450 
  7. Dysregulation of the Leukocyte Signaling Landscape during Acute COVID-19. Res Sq. 2021. PMCID:PMC7899466  PMID:33619472 
  8. Application of systems dynamics and group model building to identify barriers and facilitators to acute care delivery in a resource limited setting. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021;21(1):26. PMID:33407458 
  9. A Whole Blood Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for Functional Immune Endotyping of Septic Patients. J Immunol. 2020. PMID:33239423 
  10. Distinct inflammatory profiles distinguish COVID-19 from influenza with limited contributions from cytokine storm. Sci Adv. 2020. PMID:33187979 
  11. Prolonged adaptive immune activation in COVID-19: implications for maintenance of long-term immunity? J Clin Invest. 2020. PMID:33104057 
  12. A Peptide-Based Checkpoint Immunomodulator Alleviates Immune Dysfunction in Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis. Shock. 2020. PMID:33065715 
  13. Delayed Development of Coronary Artery Dilitation in Suspected Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome: More Research Needed. Crit Care Explor. 2020;2(10):e0236. PMCID:PMC7531755  PMID:33063036 
  14. The authors reply: Caring for Critically Ill Adults With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a PICU: Recommendations by Dual Trained Intensivists Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020. PMCID:PMC7437422  PMID:32769699 
  15. Severe immunosuppression and not a cytokine storm characterize COVID-19 infections. JCI Insight. 2020. PMID:32687484 
  16. Association of Interleukin 7 Immunotherapy With Lymphocyte Counts Among Patients With Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(7):e2016485. PMID:32697322 
  17. Targeted Immunosuppression Distinguishes COVID-19 from Influenza in Moderate and Severe Disease. medRxiv. 2020. PMCID:PMC7274224  PMID:32511543 
  18. Feature Article: Caring for Critically Ill Adults With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a PICU: Recommendations by Dual Trained Intensivists. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020. PMID:32420720 
  19. Immunotherapies for COVID-19: lessons learned from sepsis. Lancet Respir Med. 2020. PMID:32444269 
  20. High-flow nasal cannula may be no safer than non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for COVID-19 patients. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):169. PMID:32326959 
  21. Pediatric Plasma and Platelet Transfusions on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Subgroup Analysis of Two Large International Point-Prevalence Studies and the Role of Local Guidelines. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020;21(3):267-275. PMCID:PMC7060816  PMID:31644453 
  22. Effect of Fresh vs Standard-issue Red Blood Cell Transfusions on Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;322(22):2179-2190. PMID:31821429 
  23. Haptoglobin therapy has differential effects depending on severity of canine septic shock and cell-free hemoglobin level. Transfusion. 2019. PMID:31639229 
  24. IL-10 Has Differential Effects on the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems of Septic Patients. J Immunol. 2019. PMID:31501258 
  25. Effects of ABO Matching of Platelet Transfusions in Critically Ill Children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019;20(2):e61-e69. PMID:30422914 
  26. Haptoglobin improves shock, lung injury, and survival in canine pneumonia. JCI Insight. 2018;3(18). PMID:30232287 
  27. Abstract P-132: PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE IMPLEMENTATION IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS APPLICATION OF COMMUNITY-BASED GROUP MODEL BUILDING PCCM. 2018;Volume 19 - Supplement 1 (6S). doi:doi: 10.1097/01.pcc.0000537589.72326.4d  
  28. Recommendations on RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children With Nonhemorrhagic Shock From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S121-S126. PMID:30161066 
  29. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion Support in Children With Hematologic and Oncologic Diagnoses From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S149-S156. PMID:30161070 
  30. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in General Critically Ill Children Based on Hemoglobin and/or Physiologic Thresholds From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S98-S113. PMID:30161064 
  31. Implementation of the Recommendations for RBC Transfusions for Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S170-S176. PMID:30161073 
  32. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Critically Ill Children With Acute Brain Injury From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S133-S136. PMID:30161068 
  33. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Critically Ill Children With Nonlife-Threatening Bleeding or Hemorrhagic Shock From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S127-S132. PMID:30161067 
  34. Recommendations on Selection and Processing of RBC Components for Pediatric Patients From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S163-S169. PMID:30161072 
  35. Recommendations on RBC Transfusion in Infants and Children With Acquired and Congenital Heart Disease From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S137-S148. PMID:30161069 
  36. Recommendations on RBC Transfusions in Critically Ill Children With Acute Respiratory Failure From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S114-S120. PMID:30161065 
  37. Consensus Recommendations for RBC Transfusion Practice in Critically Ill Children From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9):884-898. PMID:30180125 
  38. Recommendations on the Indications for RBC Transfusion for the Critically Ill Child Receiving Support From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Ventricular Assist, and Renal Replacement Therapy Devices From the Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S157-S162. PMID:30161071 
  39. The Pediatric Critical Care Transfusion and Anemia Expertise Initiative Consensus Conference Methodology. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018;19(9S Suppl 1):S93-S97. PMID:30161063 
  40. Platelet Transfusion Practices in Critically Ill Children. Crit Care Med. 2018;46(8):1309-1317. PMID:29727368 
  42. Restoration of T Cell function in multi-drug resistant bacterial sepsis after interleukin-7, anti-PD-L1, and OX-40 administration. PLoS One. 2018;13(6):e0199497. PMCID:PMC6019671  PMID:29944697 
  43. Effects of Platelet Sparing Leukocyte Reduction and Agitation Methods on In Vitro Measures of Hemostatic Function in Cold-Stored Whole Blood. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018. PMID:29554042 
  44. Successful Surgical Repair and Perioperative Management of 6-Month-Old With Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in a Developing Country: Considerations for the Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension. Cardiol Res. 2018;9(1):53-58. PMCID:PMC5819631  PMID:29479388 
  45. Mechanisms of Red Blood Cell Transfusion-Related Immunomodulation (TRIM) Transfusion. 2018. PMID:29383722 
  46. Pediatric Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review with Pooled Analysis and Critical Care Emphasis. Front Pediatr. 2017;5:250. PMCID:PMC5705558  PMID:29226117 
  47. Anthrax immune globulin improves hemodynamics and survival during B. anthracis toxin-induced shock in canines receiving titrated fluid and vasopressor support. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2017;5(1):48. PMID:29058092 
  48. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Utilization in Pediatric Critical Care. Respir Care. 2017;62(8):1023-1029. PMID:28588119 
  49. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness. Transfusion. 2017;57(1):195-206. PMID:27696473 
  50. High-Flow Nasal Oxygen Reduces Intubation in Critically Ill Children With Respiratory Failure. Critical Care Medicine. 2016;44. doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000509697.97426.5b  PMID:27850659 
  51. Palliative Care-Led Meetings for Families of ICU Patients. JAMA. 2016;316(15):1597-1598. PMID:27755629 
  52. Red blood cell storage age - what we know from clinical trials. Expert Rev Hematol. 2016. PMID:27686118 
  53. High-Flow Oxygen as Noninvasive Ventilation May Complicate Timely Intubation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(8):e768-9. PMID:27428147 
  54. Transfused fresh blood does not improve outcome, but safety of the oldest stored units still needs to be established compared to current practice Blood. 2016;127(4). 
  55. Transfusion of recently donated (fresh) red blood cells (RBCs) does not improve survival in comparison with current practice, while safety of the oldest stored units is yet to be established: a meta-analysis. Vox Sang. 2016. doi:10.1111/vox.12380  PMID:26848822 
  56. Does Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Directly Depress Myocardial Function? A Review of Clinical Cases and Preclinical Studies. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7(12):5417-34. PMCID:PMC4690141  PMID:26703730 
  57. In a canine pneumonia model of exchange transfusion, altering the age but not the volume of older red blood cells markedly alters outcome. Transfusion. 2015;55(11):2564-75. PMCID:PMC4644122  PMID:26469998 
  58. In a canine pneumonia model of exchange transfusion, altering the age but not the volume of older red blood cells markedly alters outcome Transfusion. 2015;00(0):0. 
  59. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Respiratory Failure. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(14):1373-1375. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1508390#SA3  PMID:26422732 
  60. Transfused older stored red blood cells improve the clinical course and outcome in a canine lethal hemorrhage and reperfusion model. Transfusion. 2015. doi:10.1111/trf.13213  PMID:26175134 
  61. Sedation protocol for critically ill pediatric patients. JAMA. 2015;313(17):1754. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3459  PMID:25942730 
  62. An overview of investigational toxin-directed therapies for the adjunctive management of Bacillus anthracis infection and sepsis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015;1-15. doi:10.1517/13543784.2015.1041587  PMID:25920540 
  63. The influence of the storage lesion(s) on pediatric red cell transfusion. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015. doi:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000224  PMID:25888156 
  64. Role of granulocyte transfusions in invasive fusariosis: systematic review and single-center experience. Transfusion. 2015. doi:10.1111/trf.13099  PMID:25857209 
  65. A place at the table for children in the ebola virus disease discussion. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):184-5. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000368  PMID:25647125 
  66. Raxibacumab augments hemodynamic support and improves outcomes during shock with B. anthracis edema toxin alone or together with lethal toxin in canines. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2015;3(9). doi:10.1186/s40635-015-0043-4  PMID:26097803 
  67. Transfusion of older stored blood worsens outcomes in canines depending on the presence and severity of pneumonia. Transfusion. 2014;54(7):1712-24. doi:10.1111/trf.12607  PMCID:PMC4214924  PMID:24588210 
  68. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia. Blood. 2014;123(9):1403-11. doi:10.1182/blood-2013-11-539353  PMCID:PMC3938151  PMID:24366359 
  69. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305(9):L625-34. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00068.2013  PMCID:PMC3840275  PMID:23997176 
  70. B. anthracis associated cardiovascular dysfunction and shock: the potential contribution of both non-toxin and toxin components. BMC Med. 2013;11:217. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-217  PMCID:PMC3851549  PMID:24107194 
  71. B. anthracis edema toxin increases cAMP levels and inhibits phenylephrine-stimulated contraction in a rat aortic ring model. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305(2):H238-50. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00185.2013  PMCID:PMC3726957  PMID:23585140 
  72. Cerebellar metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a pediatric patient with complex congenital heart disease. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25(11-12):1195-9. doi:10.1515/jpem-2012-0162  PMID:23329771 
Last updated: 07/21/2021
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