Leonard B. Bacharier, M.D.  bacharier_l@wustl.edu

Donald B. Strominger Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine
Clinical Director, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine
Unit Co-Leader, Patient Oriented Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Patient Oriented Research UnitAllergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2694

Clinical Interests

Dr. Bacharier is Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine, USA Clinical Director of the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine, and Unit Co-Leader for the Pediatric Patient Oriented Research Unit. He received his undergraduate degree in biophysics from The Johns Hopkins University, USA and his medical degree from Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Bacharier was an intern and resident in pediatrics at St. Louis Children's Hospital and a fellow in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School. He was a recipient of the 2005 Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education from Washington University School of Medicine and is a member of several organizations including the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the American Thoracic Society. Dr. Bacharier's research focuses on childhood asthma. Specifically, he is a Principal Investigator in the NHLBI-funded AsthmaNet, a multi-centered network examining therapeutic approaches to childhood asthma. He is an investigator in the NHLBI’s Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) and the Inner City Asthma Consortium’s URECA study examining the influence of urban environments on the development of asthma and allergic disorders. He is also an Investigator in the American Lung Association’s Asthma Clinical Research Center Network. Dr. Bacharier is also currently investigating the role of early infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus upon the subsequent development of asthma.


  • BA, General and Department Honors, The Johns Hopkins University1988
  • MD, Washington University School of Medicine1992


  • Internship and Residency, St. Louis Children's Hospital1992 - 1995
  • Fellowship , Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School 1995 - 1998

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Diplomate, National Board of Medical Examiners 1993
  • Diplomate, American Board of Pediatrics, Recertified 2002 1996
  • Diplomate, American Board of Allergy and Immunology, Recertified 2006 1997
  • MO, Medical License 1998


  • Washington University Student Research Fellowship1989
  • ACAAI Travel Grant1996
  • The Distinguished Residents and Fellows Asthma Education Program, London, England1996
  • AAAAI Travel Grant, 1997 and 19981997
  • National Institutes of Health Pediatric Research Loan Repayment Award (renewal 2004-6)2002 - 2004
  • Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2005
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2013
  • Harvey R. Colten, MD Scholar in Pediatrics2015 - 2016
  • Donald B. Strominger Professor of Pediatrics2016 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (114)

  1. Azithromycin therapy during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: Upper airway microbiome alterations and subsequent recurrent wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27339392 
  2. Daily global stress is associated with nocturnal asthma awakenings in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27246525 
  3. Preventing Exacerbations in Preschoolers with Recurrent Wheeze: A Meta-Analysis Pediatrics (In Press). 2016. 
  4. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D insufficient asthmatics does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol (In Press). 2016. 
  5. Early-life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):172-8. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000244  PMID:26854761 
  6. Temporal biological variability in dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults. J Immunol Methods. 2016;431:63-5. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2016.02.006  PMCID:PMC4801223  PMID:26859243 
  7. Identification of infants and preschool children at risk for asthma: predictive scores and biomarkers. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):120-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000240  PMID:26807784 
  8. Vitamin D3 therapy in patients with asthma complicated by sinonasal disease: Secondary analysis of the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1329  PMID:26971692 
  9. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016;4(1):80-90. doi:10.1002/iid3.96  PMCID:PMC4768071  PMID:27042305 
  10. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D-insufficient asthmatic patients does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.030  PMID:26874367 
  11. Effect of Prenatal Supplementation With Vitamin D on Asthma or Recurrent Wheezing in Offspring by Age 3 Years: The VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):362-70. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18589  PMID:26813209 
  12. Management of Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing: Lessons from the NHLBI's Asthma Research Networks. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(1):1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.10.003  PMCID:PMC4715860  PMID:26772922 
  13. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(12):1856-67. doi:10.1111/cea.12643  PMCID:PMC4654660  PMID:26414909 
  14. The recurrently wheezing preschool child-benign or asthma in the making? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(6):463-70. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2015.09.019  PMID:26653278 
  15. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015;314(19):2034-44. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13896  PMCID:PMC4757487  PMID:26575060 
  16. Reply: To PMID 25458910. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1135-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.013  PMID:26309182 
  17. Does azithromycin modify viral load during severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1129-31. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.06.011  PMCID:PMC4600448  PMID:26215052 
  18. Vitamin D Levels Are Unrelated to the Severity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Among Hospitalized Infants. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4(3):182-8. doi:10.1093/jpids/piu042  PMCID:PMC4554201  PMID:26336601 
  19. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(20):2033-43. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5024  PMID:26010632 
  20. Randomized trial to evaluate azithromycin's effects on serum and upper airway IL-8 levels and recurrent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(5):1171-1178.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.001  PMCID:PMC4426225  PMID:25458910 
  21. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015;15(5):20. doi:10.1007/s11882-015-0521-5  PMID:26134431 
  22. Markers of Differential Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment Among Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.01.023  PMID:25783161 
  23. Update on the utility of corticosteroids in acute pediatric respiratory disorders. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(5):332-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3865  PMCID:PMC4548893  PMID:26314814 
  24. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):765-71.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009  PMCID:PMC4568157  PMID:26164807 
  25. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142649  PMCID:PMC4654486  PMID:26587832 
  26. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):593-601.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.018  PMID:24908147 
  27. Longitudinal changes in airway remodeling and air trapping in severe asthma. Acad Radiol. 2014;21(8):986-93. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2014.05.001  PMCID:PMC4100072  PMID:25018070 
  28. Management of acute loss of asthma control in the yellow zone: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;113(2):143-59. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2014.05.017  PMID:25065350 
  29. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(6):1535-46. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.018  PMCID:PMC4088262  PMID:24636091 
  30. The association between vitamin D status and the rate of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1489-92, 1492.e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.024  PMCID:PMC4086617  PMID:24698320 
  31. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014;38(1):37-50. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2014.02.006  PMCID:PMC4086903  PMID:24614387 
  32. Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(20):2083-91. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5052  PMID:24838406 
  33. The relationships between environmental bacterial exposure, airway bacterial colonization, and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):137-42. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000036  PMID:24451910 
  34. Early weight gain and the development of asthma and atopy in children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):126-30. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000037  PMID:24451911 
  35. Infection-induced wheezing in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):603-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.12.001  PMCID:PMC4086475  PMID:24636478 
  36. Predictors of asthma control and lung function responsiveness to step 3 therapy in children with uncontrolled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):350-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.07.039  PMCID:PMC3960329  PMID:24084071 
  37. Severe asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(5):489-500. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2014.06.022  PMID:25213041 
  38. The role of early life viral bronchiolitis in the inception of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;13(2):211-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835eb6ef  PMID:23385289 
  39. Do oral corticosteroids reduce the severity of acute lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with recurrent wheezing? J Allergy Clin Immunol(In Press). 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.034  PMID:23498594 
  40. Intraoperative anaphylaxis secondary to intraosseous gelatin administration. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33(5):e58-60. doi:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3182857d88  PMID:23752162 
  41. Nonrespiratory symptoms before loss of asthma control in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(3):304-6.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2013.01.012  PMID:24565492 
  42. Diagnosis and management of early asthma in preschool-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):287-96; quiz 297-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.025  PMID:22664162 
  43. International consensus on (ICON) pediatric asthma. Allergy. 2012;67(8):976-97. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02865.x  PMID:22702533 
  44. Determinants of asthma after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(1):91-100.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.010  PMCID:PMC3612548  PMID:22444510 
  45. Severe asthma in childhood: recent advances in phenotyping and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(2):193-201. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835090ac  PMCID:PMC3310912  PMID:22249197 
  46. Lansoprazole for children with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307(4):373-81. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2035  PMID:22274684 
  47. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with negative oral food challenges. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(6):467-73. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3607  PMCID:PMC3522388  PMID:23394503 
  48. Step-down therapy in asthma: a focus on treatment options for patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonist combination therapy. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(1):13-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3493  PMID:22183083 
  49. Daily or intermittent budesonide in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):1990-2001. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1104647  PMCID:PMC3247621  PMID:22111718 
  50. Most nocturnal asthma symptoms occur outside of exacerbations and associate with morbidity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):977-82.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.018  PMCID:PMC3408598  PMID:21855126 
  51. Caregivers report a wide variety of early signs and symptoms of impending asthma exacerbations that are not different between preschool and school-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):1109-11.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.033  PMID:21906791 
  52. Growth of preschool children at high risk for asthma 2 years after discontinuation of fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):956-63.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.027  PMCID:PMC3224818  PMID:21820163 
  53. Evaluation of the child with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(3):690.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.034  PMID:21878246 
  54. Phenotypic expressions of childhood wheezing and asthma: implications for therapy. J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):878-884.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.01.057  PMID:21429508 
  55. Use of beclomethasone dipropionate as rescue treatment for children with mild persistent asthma (TREXA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9766):650-7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62145-9  PMID:21324520 
  56. Heterogeneity of severe asthma in childhood: confirmation by cluster analysis of children in the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):382-389.e1-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.015  PMCID:PMC3060668  PMID:21195471 
  57. Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):355-60. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.037  PMID:21281866 
  58. Urinary leukotriene E4/exhaled nitric oxide ratio and montelukast response in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):545-51.e1-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.008  PMCID:PMC2935914  PMID:20816189 
  59. Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio in relation to clinical and physiological parameters in asthmatic children with normal FEV1 values. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):527-34.e1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.05.016  PMCID:PMC2933964  PMID:20638110 
  60. Step-up therapy for children with uncontrolled asthma receiving inhaled corticosteroids. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(11):975-85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001278  PMCID:PMC2989902  PMID:20197425 
  61. Socioeconomic status associated with exhaled nitric oxide responses to acute stress in children with asthma. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(3):444-50. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.11.017  PMCID:PMC2826564  PMID:19961922 
  62. Relationship between infant weight gain and later asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(1 Pt 1):82-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00926.x  PMCID:PMC2887600  PMID:19725894 
  63. Viral-induced wheezing episodes in preschool children: approaches to therapy. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16(1):31-5. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32833303e6  PMID:19816178 
  64. Lower levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in peripheral blood are associated with a diagnosis of asthma 6 yr after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20(5):471-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2008.00818.x  PMCID:PMC3515331  PMID:19140903 
  65. Effect of elevated exhaled nitric oxide levels on the risk of respiratory tract illness in preschool-aged children with moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(2):108-13. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60162-7  PMID:19739422 
  66. Signs and symptoms that precede wheezing in children with a pattern of moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. J Pediatr. 2009;154(6):877-81.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.12.029  PMCID:PMC3086348  PMID:19324370 
  67. Patient characteristics associated with improved outcomes with use of an inhaled corticosteroid in preschool children at risk for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(5):1077-82, 1082.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.12.1120  PMCID:PMC2909590  PMID:19230959 
  68. Long-term budesonide or nedocromil treatment, once discontinued, does not alter the course of mild to moderate asthma in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009;154(5):682-7. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.11.036  PMCID:PMC2942076  PMID:19167726 
  69. Efficacy of esomeprazole for treatment of poorly controlled asthma. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(15):1487-99. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806290  PMCID:PMC2974569  PMID:19357404 
  70. Impulse oscillometry versus spirometry in a long-term study of controller therapy for pediatric asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(4):861-7.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.036  PMID:19070356 
  71. Phenotypic predictors of long-term response to inhaled corticosteroid and leukotriene modifier therapies in pediatric asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):411-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.11.016  PMCID:PMC2662352  PMID:19121860 
  72. Diagnosis and management of asthma in preschool and school-age children: focus on the 2007 NAEPP Guidelines. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2009;15(1):52-6. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32831da8ea  PMID:19077706 
  73. Episodic use of an inhaled corticosteroid or leukotriene receptor antagonist in preschool children with moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(6):1127-1135.e8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.09.029  PMCID:PMC2753208  PMID:18973936 
  74. Azithromycin or montelukast as inhaled corticosteroid-sparing agents in moderate-to-severe childhood asthma study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(6):1138-1144.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.09.028  PMCID:PMC2737448  PMID:18951618 
  75. Cytokine response after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in early life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(4):726-733.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.07.010  PMCID:PMC2597800  PMID:18760461 
  76. Management of asthma based on exhaled nitric oxide in addition to guideline-based treatment for inner-city adolescents and young adults: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9643):1065-72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61448-8  PMCID:PMC2610850  PMID:18805335 
  77. Management of asthma in preschool children with inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8(2):158-62. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3282f64802  PMID:18317026 
  78. Natural history of asthma: persistence versus progression-does the beginning predict the end? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(3):607-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.01.006  PMID:18328890 
  79. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in childhood: a PRACTALL consensus report. Allergy. 2008;63(1):5-34. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01586.x  PMID:18053013 
  80. Randomized comparison of strategies for reducing treatment in mild persistent asthma. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(20):2027-39. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa070013  PMID:17507702 
  81. Pediatric asthma admissions: chronic severity and acute exacerbations. J Asthma. 2007;44(4):285-9. doi:10.1080/02770900701340445  PMID:17530527 
  82. Management approaches to intermittent wheezing in young children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7(2):180-4. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32807fafd2  PMID:17351473 
  83. Severe intermittent wheezing in preschool children: a distinct phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(3):604-10. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.607  PMID:17336610 
  84. Characterization of the severe asthma phenotype by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(2):405-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.11.639  PMCID:PMC2837934  PMID:17291857 
  85. Clinical trial of low-dose theophylline and montelukast in patients with poorly controlled asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175(3):235-42. doi:10.1164/rccm.200603-416OC  PMID:16998094 
  86. Long-term comparison of 3 controller regimens for mild-moderate persistent childhood asthma: the Pediatric Asthma Controller Trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(1):64-72. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.09.042  PMID:17140647 
  87. Long-term inhaled corticosteroids in preschool children at high risk for asthma. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(19):1985-97. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa051378  PMID:16687711 
  88. Response profiles to fluticasone and montelukast in mild-to-moderate persistent childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(1):45-52. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.012  PMID:16387583 
  89. Paternal history of asthma and airway responsiveness in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(5):552-8. doi:10.1164/rccm.200501-010OC  PMCID:PMC2718530  PMID:15937295 
  90. Characterization of within-subject responses to fluticasone and montelukast in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115(2):233-42. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.11.014  PMID:15696076 
  91. Infectious triggers of asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2005;25(1):45-66. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2004.09.011  PMID:15579364 
  92. Severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is affected by cigarette smoke exposure and atopy. Pediatrics. 2005;115(1):e7-14. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0059  PMID:15629968 
  93. Atopic characteristics of children with recurrent wheezing at high risk for the development of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(6):1282-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.09.020  PMID:15577824 
  94. Classifying asthma severity in children: mismatch between symptoms, medication use, and lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(4):426-32. doi:10.1164/rccm.200308-1178OC  PMID:15172893 
  95. Long-term effect of budesonide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with mild to moderate asthma. Pediatrics. 2004;113(6):1693-9. PMID:15173493 
  96. The Prevention of Early Asthma in Kids study: design, rationale and methods for the Childhood Asthma Research and Education network. Control Clin Trials. 2004;25(3):286-310. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2004.03.002  PMID:15157730 
  97. Pets and childhood asthma--how should the pediatrician respond to new information that pets may prevent asthma? Pediatrics. 2003;112(4):974-6. PMID:14523195 
  98. Hospitalization for asthma: atopic, pulmonary function, and psychological correlates among participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Pediatrics. 2003;112(2):e85-92. PMID:12897312 
  99. C4b-binding protein (C4BP) activates B cells through the CD40 receptor. Immunity. 2003;18(6):837-48. PMID:12818164 
  100. Growth and bone density in children with mild-moderate asthma: a cross-sectional study in children entering the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Pediatr. 2003;142(3):286-91. PMID:12640377 
  101. Socioeconomic status, stress, and immune markers in adolescents with asthma. Psychosom Med. 2003;65(6):984-92. PMID:14645776 
  102. Nocturnal awakening caused by asthma in children with mild-to-moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110(3):395-403. PMID:12209085 
  103. Vocal cord dysfunction: A practical approach J Respir Dis Pediatrician. 2001;3(42-48). 
  104. The prevalence of environmental exposure to perceived asthma triggers in children with mild-to-moderate asthma: data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107(4):634-40. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.113869  PMID:11295651 
  105. Relationship between increased airway responsiveness and asthma severity in the childhood asthma management program. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(1):50-6. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.162.1.9811005  PMID:10903219 
  106. Long-term effects of budesonide or nedocromil in children with asthma. The Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1054-63. doi:10.1056/NEJM200010123431501  PMID:11027739 
  107. Neurocognitive functioning in children with mild and moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Research Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105(4):717-24. PMID:10756221 
  108. Molecular mechanisms of IgE regulation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105(2 Pt 2):S547-58. PMID:10669540 
  109. The relationships among environmental allergen sensitization, allergen exposure, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104(4 Pt 1):775-85. PMID:10518821 
  110. Ku in the cytoplasm associates with CD40 in human B cells and translocates into the nucleus following incubation with IL-4 and anti-CD40 mAb. Immunity. 1999;11(3):339-48. PMID:10514012 
  111. Recruitment of participants in the childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). I. Description of methods: Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group J Asthma. 1999;36:217-37. 
  112. Relationships between duration of asthma and asthma severity among children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103(3 Pt 1):376-87. PMID:10069869 
  113. Regulation of IgE synthesis: the molecular basis and implications for clinical modulation. Allergy Asthma Proc. 1999;20(1):1-8. PMID:10076703 
  114. Molecular mechanisms of immunoglobulin E regulation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1998;115(4):257-69. PMID:9566348 
Wash U School of Medicine
Children's Hospital St. Louis
Children's Discovery Institute
© 2017 by Washington University in St. Louis
One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130