Leonard B. Bacharier, M.D.  bacharier_l@wustl.edu

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Robert C. Strunk Endowed Chair for Lung and Respiratory Research
Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine
Unit Co-Leader, Patient Oriented Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Patient Oriented Research UnitAllergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2694

Clinical Interests

Dr. Bacharier is the Robert C Strunk Endowed Chair for Lung and Respiratory Research, Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine, USA Clinical Director of the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine, and Unit Co-Leader for the Pediatric Patient Oriented Research Unit. He received his undergraduate degree in biophysics from The Johns Hopkins University, USA and his medical degree from Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Bacharier was an intern and resident in pediatrics at St. Louis Children's Hospital and a fellow in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School. He was a recipient of the 2005 Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education from Washington University School of Medicine and is a member of several organizations including the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the American Thoracic Society. Dr. Bacharier's research focuses on childhood asthma. Specifically, he is a Principal Investigator in the NHLBI-funded AsthmaNet, a multi-centered network examining therapeutic approaches to childhood asthma. He is an investigator in the NHLBI’s PrecISE Program for Severe Asthma and the Inner City Asthma Consortium’s URECA study examining the influence of urban environments on the development of asthma and allergic disorders. He is also an Investigator in the American Lung Association’s Asthma Clinical Research Center Network. Dr. Bacharier is also currently investigating the role of early infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus upon the subsequent development of asthma.


  • BA, General and Department Honors, The Johns Hopkins University1988
  • MD, Washington University School of Medicine1992


  • Internship and Residency, St. Louis Children's Hospital1992 - 1995
  • Fellowship , Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School 1995 - 1998

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1993 - PresDiplomate, National Board of Medical Examiners
  • 1996 - PresDiplomate, American Board of Pediatrics, Recertified 2002
  • 1997 - PresDiplomate, American Board of Allergy and Immunology, Recertified 2006
  • 1998 - PresMO, Medical License

Honors and Awards

  • Washington University Student Research Fellowship1989
  • ACAAI Travel Grant1996
  • The Distinguished Residents and Fellows Asthma Education Program, London, England1996
  • AAAAI Travel Grant, 1997 and 19981997
  • National Institutes of Health Pediatric Research Loan Repayment Award (renewal 2004-6)2002 - 2004
  • Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2005
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2013
  • Harvey R. Colten, MD Scholar in Pediatrics2015 - 2016

Recent Publications view all (196)

  1. Step-Up Therapy in Black Children and Adults with Poorly Controlled Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(13):1227-1239. PMID:31553835 
  2. Ecallantide: An alternative treatment of refractory angioedema in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019. PMID:31541765 
  3. Exacerbation-Prone Asthma in the Context of Race and Ancestry in Asthma Clinical Research Network Trials. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019. PMID:31520679 
  4. Fecal short-chain fatty acids in pregnancy and offspring asthma and allergic outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019. PMID:31494295 
  5. Maternal Asthma, Preeclampsia, and Risk for Childhood Asthma at Age Six. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;200(5):638-642. PMID:31059286 
  6. Effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and allergy status in obesity-related pediatric asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2019. PMID:31469258 
  7. Advances in Asthma, ACO, and Related Biologics in 2018. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019. PMID:31476323 
  8. Clinical significance of the bronchodilator response in children with severe asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2019. PMID:31424170 
  9. Integrative analysis of the intestinal metabolome of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;144(2):442-454. PMCID:PMC6688902  PMID:30914378 
  10. The association of allergic sensitization patterns in early childhood with disease manifestations and immunological reactivity at 10 years of age. Clin Exp Allergy. 2019;49(8):1087-1094. PMID:31046157 
  11. A Pragmatic Trial of Symptom-Based Inhaled Corticosteroid Use in African-American Children with Mild Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019. PMID:31371165 
  12. Cockroach allergen component analysis of children with or without asthma and rhinitis in an inner-city birth cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019. PMID:31201891 
  13. The Children's Respiratory and Environmental Workgroup (CREW) birth cohort consortium: design, methods, and study population. Respir Res. 2019;20(1):115. PMCID:PMC6558735  PMID:31182091 
  14. GINA 2019: a fundamental change in asthma management: Treatment of asthma with short-acting bronchodilators alone is no longer recommended for adults and adolescents. Eur Respir J. 2019;53(6). PMID:31249014 
  15. Racial disparities in asthma-related health care use in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143(6):2052-2061. PMCID:PMC6556425  PMID:30635198 
  16. Mometasone or Tiotropium in Mild Asthma with a Low Sputum Eosinophil Level. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(21):2009-2019. PMCID:PMC6711475  PMID:31112384 
  17. Mind the gaps: Clinical trial concepts to address unanswered questions in aeroallergen immunotherapy-An NIAID/AHRQ Workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143(5):1711-1726. PMID:30731123 
  18. Transcriptome networks identify mechanisms of viral and nonviral asthma exacerbations in children. Nat Immunol. 2019;20(5):637-651. PMCID:PMC6472965  PMID:30962590 
  19. Using only a subset of pneumococcal serotypes is reliable for the diagnosis of specific antibody deficiency in children: A proof-of-concept study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2019;30(3):392-395. PMCID:PMC6488433  PMID:30681739 
  20. Challenges in assessing the efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for severe wheezing episodes in preschool children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143(5):1934-1937.e4. PMCID:PMC6504562  PMID:30660645 
  21. Impact of parental asthma, prenatal maternal asthma control, and vitamin D status on risk of asthma and recurrent wheeze in 3-year-old children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2019;49(4):419-429. PMCID:PMC6438751  PMID:30461089 
  22. Predictors of inhaled corticosteroid taper failure in adults with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(4):1335-1337.e3. PMCID:PMC6424637  PMID:30240889 
  23. Allergen content in German cockroach extracts and sensitization profiles to a new expanded set of cockroach allergens determine in vitro extract potency for IgE reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143(4):1474-1481.e8. PMCID:PMC6395535  PMID:30170124 
  24. Gut microbiota and overweight in 3-year old children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(4):713-723. PMCID:PMC6457121  PMID:30568265 
  25. Phenotypes of wheezing and asthma in preschool children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;19(2):148-153. PMCID:PMC6395501  PMID:30640211 
  26. The Asthma Controller Step-down Yardstick. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019;122(3):241-262.e4. PMID:30550809 
  27. Rhinitis in children and adolescents with asthma: Ubiquitous, difficult to control, and associated with asthma outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143(3):1003-1011.e10. PMCID:PMC6408960  PMID:30213627 
  28. Association of the Infant Gut Microbiome With Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: An Ancillary Study to the VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(3):e190905. PMCID:PMC6583279  PMID:30901046 
  29. Phenotypes of Recurrent Wheezing in Preschool Children: Identification by Latent Class Analysis and Utility in Prediction of Future Exacerbation. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(3):915-924.e7. PMCID:PMC6401237  PMID:30267890 
  30. Variability in German Cockroach Extract Composition Greatly Impacts T Cell Potency in Cockroach-Allergic Donors. Front Immunol. 2019;10:313. PMCID:PMC6413722  PMID:30891032 
  31. Dietary and Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Inversely Associated with Asthma and Atopy in Early Childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(2):529-538.e8. PMCID:PMC6400588  PMID:30145365 
  32. Longitudinal Phenotypes of Respiratory Health in a High-Risk Urban Birth Cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(1):71-82. PMCID:PMC6353010  PMID:30079758 
  33. Impact of Preeclampsia on the Relationship between Maternal Asthma and Offspring Asthma. An Observation from the VDAART Clinical Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(1):32-42. PMCID:PMC6353019  PMID:30153046 
  34. Biologics for Severe Asthma: Treatment-Specific Effects Are Important in Choosing a Specific Agent. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(5):1379-1392. PMID:31076056 
  35. Diet during Pregnancy and Infancy and the Infant Intestinal Microbiome. J Pediatr. 2018;203:47-54.e4. PMCID:PMC6371799  PMID:30173873 
  36. Being Overweight or Obese and the Development of Asthma. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6). PMID:30478238 
  37. Intestinal microbial-derived sphingolipids are inversely associated with childhood food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142(1):335-338.e9. PMID:29729303 
  38. Recurrent wheezing in children following human metapneumovirus infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142(1):297-301.e2. PMID:29481834 
  39. Prenatal and early-life triclosan and paraben exposure and allergic outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142(1):269-278.e15. PMCID:PMC5924494  PMID:29111213 
  40. Consistently very poorly controlled asthma is associated with greater activity and school impairment in children with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018. PMID:29883753 
  41. The pediatric asthma yardstick: Practical recommendations for a sustained step-up in asthma therapy for children with inadequately controlled asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018;120(6):559-579.e11. PMID:29653238 
  42. Inhaled Glucocorticoids in Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(21):2051. PMID:29791825 
  43. Clinical characterization of children with resistant airflow obstruction, a multicenter study. J Asthma. 2018;1-7. PMID:29771599 
  44. Effects of endogenous sex hormones on lung function and symptom control in adolescents with asthma. BMC Pulm Med. 2018;18(1):58. PMCID:PMC5891903  PMID:29631584 
  45. Early-life home environment and risk of asthma among inner-city children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):1468-1475. PMID:28939248 
  46. Caregiver and pediatric provider perspectives on symptom-based inhaled corticosteroid therapy in asthma. Respir Med. 2018;137:201-205. PMID:29605205 
  47. Overweight/obesity status in preschool children associates with worse asthma but robust improvement on inhaled corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):1459-1467.e2. PMID:29273557 
  48. Development of Asthma in Inner-City Children: Possible Roles of MAIT Cells and Variation in the Home Environment. J Immunol. 2018;200(6):1995-2003. PMCID:PMC5840005  PMID:29431692 
  49. Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(10):891-901. PMCID:PMC5972517  PMID:29504498 
  50. Allergen-induced activation of natural killer cells represents an early-life immune response in the development of allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018. PMID:29518416 
  51. Spirometry and Impulse Oscillometry in Preschool Children: Acceptability and Relationship to Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018. PMID:29449165 
  52. Aeroallergen sensitization predicts acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2018;180(4):571-577. PMCID:PMC5945280  PMID:29363738 
  53. Baseline Features of the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP III) Cohort: Differences with Age. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018;6(2):545-554.e4. PMCID:PMC5832534  PMID:28866107 
  54. The Association of Maternal Asthma and Early Pregnancy Vitamin D with Risk of Preeclampsia: An Observation From Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018;6(2):600-608.e2. PMCID:PMC5843492  PMID:28923490 
  55. Screen Time Engagement Is Increased in Urban Children With Asthma. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017;56(11):1048-1053. PMID:28871879 
  56. Severe Asthma in Children J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):889-898. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2017.04.031  PMID:28689839 
  57. A prospective microbiome-wide association study of food sensitization and food allergy in early childhood. Allergy. 2017. PMID:28632934 
  58. Asthma control status in pregnancy, body mass index, and maternal vitamin D levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28606587 
  59. Effects of Age and Disease Severity on Systemic Corticosteroid Responses in Asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(11):1439-1448. PMCID:PMC5470749  PMID:27967215 
  60. Microbes and the Role of Antibiotic Treatment for Wheezy Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17(5):34. PMID:28456910 
  61. BMAL1 links the circadian clock to viral airway pathology and asthma phenotypes. Mucosal Immunol. 2017. PMID:28401936 
  62. Strategies to alter the natural history of childhood asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):139-145. PMID:28079559 
  63. Pediatric asthma - moving ahead faster than ever. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):96-98. PMID:28225363 
  64. Management of preschool recurrent wheezing and asthma: a phenotype-based approach. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):131-138. PMID:28118241 
  65. Reducing Exposure to Mouse Allergen Among Children and Adolescents With Asthma Is Achievable, but Is It Enough? JAMA. 2017;317(10):1023-1025. PMID:28264092 
  66. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, prenatal 25(OH)D levels, race, and subsequent asthma or recurrent wheeze in offspring: Secondary analyses from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28285844 
  67. Inflammatory and Comorbid Features of Patients with Severe Asthma and Frequent Exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(3):302-313. PMCID:PMC5328178  PMID:27556234 
  68. Factors influencing the infant gut microbiome at age 3-6 months: Findings from the ethnically diverse Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(2):482-491.e14. PMCID:PMC5303123  PMID:27746239 
  69. Editorial: moving ahead faster than ever. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28141627 
  70. Patterns of immune development in urban preschoolers with recurrent wheeze and/or atopy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMCID:PMC5509531  PMID:28089873 
  71. Individualized therapy for persistent asthma in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(6):1608-1618.e12. PMCID:PMC5148729  PMID:27777180 
  72. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Invest. 2016;126(12):4702-4715. PMCID:PMC5127689  PMID:27841759 
  73. Treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma-consistent effect of anti-interleukin-5 antibodies? Lancet. 2016;388(10056):2059-2060. PMID:27609409 
  74. Distinguishing characteristics of difficult-to-control asthma in inner-city children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(4):1030-1041. PMCID:PMC5379996  PMID:27720017 
  75. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(7):619-30. PMCID:PMC5085065  PMID:27532828 
  76. Preventing Exacerbations in Preschoolers With Recurrent Wheeze: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2016;137(6). PMID:27230765 
  77. Azithromycin therapy during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: Upper airway microbiome alterations and subsequent recurrent wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27339392 
  78. Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Children--Reply. JAMA. 2016;315(19):2122-3. PMID:27187309 
  79. Daily global stress is associated with nocturnal asthma awakenings in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27246525 
  80. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D insufficient asthmatics does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol (In Press). 2016. 
  81. Early-life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):172-8. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000244  PMID:26854761 
  82. Temporal biological variability in dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults. J Immunol Methods. 2016;431:63-5. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2016.02.006  PMCID:PMC4801223  PMID:26859243 
  83. Identification of infants and preschool children at risk for asthma: predictive scores and biomarkers. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):120-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000240  PMID:26807784 
  84. Vitamin D3 therapy in patients with asthma complicated by sinonasal disease: Secondary analysis of the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1329  PMID:26971692 
  85. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016;4(1):80-90. doi:10.1002/iid3.96  PMCID:PMC4768071  PMID:27042305 
  86. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D-insufficient asthmatic patients does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.030  PMID:26874367 
  87. Effect of Prenatal Supplementation With Vitamin D on Asthma or Recurrent Wheezing in Offspring by Age 3 Years: The VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):362-70. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18589  PMID:26813209 
  88. Management of Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing: Lessons from the NHLBI's Asthma Research Networks. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(1):1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.10.003  PMCID:PMC4715860  PMID:26772922 
  89. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(12):1856-67. doi:10.1111/cea.12643  PMCID:PMC4654660  PMID:26414909 
  90. The recurrently wheezing preschool child-benign or asthma in the making? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(6):463-70. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2015.09.019  PMID:26653278 
  91. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015;314(19):2034-44. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13896  PMCID:PMC4757487  PMID:26575060 
  92. Reply: To PMID 25458910. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1135-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.013  PMID:26309182 
  93. Does azithromycin modify viral load during severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1129-31. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.06.011  PMCID:PMC4600448  PMID:26215052 
  94. Vitamin D Levels Are Unrelated to the Severity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Among Hospitalized Infants. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4(3):182-8. doi:10.1093/jpids/piu042  PMCID:PMC4554201  PMID:26336601 
  95. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(20):2033-43. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5024  PMID:26010632 
  96. Randomized trial to evaluate azithromycin's effects on serum and upper airway IL-8 levels and recurrent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(5):1171-1178.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.001  PMCID:PMC4426225  PMID:25458910 
  97. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015;15(5):20. doi:10.1007/s11882-015-0521-5  PMID:26134431 
  98. Markers of Differential Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment Among Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.01.023  PMID:25783161 
  99. Update on the utility of corticosteroids in acute pediatric respiratory disorders. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(5):332-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3865  PMCID:PMC4548893  PMID:26314814 
  100. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):765-71.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009  PMCID:PMC4568157  PMID:26164807 
  101. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142649  PMCID:PMC4654486  PMID:26587832 
  102. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):593-601.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.018  PMID:24908147 
  103. Longitudinal changes in airway remodeling and air trapping in severe asthma. Acad Radiol. 2014;21(8):986-93. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2014.05.001  PMCID:PMC4100072  PMID:25018070 
  104. Management of acute loss of asthma control in the yellow zone: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;113(2):143-59. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2014.05.017  PMID:25065350 
  105. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(6):1535-46. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.018  PMCID:PMC4088262  PMID:24636091 
  106. Early-life weight gain, prematurity, and asthma development. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1330-1. PMID:24766877 
  107. The association between vitamin D status and the rate of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1489-92, 1492.e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.024  PMCID:PMC4086617  PMID:24698320 
  108. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014;38(1):37-50. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2014.02.006  PMCID: