Leonard B. Bacharier, M.D.  bacharier_l@wustl.edu

Donald B. Strominger Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine
Clinical Director, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine
Unit Co-Leader, Patient Oriented Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Patient Oriented Research UnitAllergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2694

Clinical Interests

Dr. Bacharier is Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine, USA Clinical Director of the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine, and Unit Co-Leader for the Pediatric Patient Oriented Research Unit. He received his undergraduate degree in biophysics from The Johns Hopkins University, USA and his medical degree from Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Bacharier was an intern and resident in pediatrics at St. Louis Children's Hospital and a fellow in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School. He was a recipient of the 2005 Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education from Washington University School of Medicine and is a member of several organizations including the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the American Thoracic Society. Dr. Bacharier's research focuses on childhood asthma. Specifically, he is a Principal Investigator in the NHLBI-funded AsthmaNet, a multi-centered network examining therapeutic approaches to childhood asthma. He is an investigator in the NHLBI’s Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) and the Inner City Asthma Consortium’s URECA study examining the influence of urban environments on the development of asthma and allergic disorders. He is also an Investigator in the American Lung Association’s Asthma Clinical Research Center Network. Dr. Bacharier is also currently investigating the role of early infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus upon the subsequent development of asthma.

Education

  • B.A., General and Department Honors, The Johns Hopkins University1988
  • M.D., Washington University School of Medicine1992

Training

  • Internship and Residency, St. Louis Children's Hospital1992 - 1995
  • Fellowship , Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School 1995 - 1998

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Diplomate, National Board of Medical Examiners1993
  • Diplomate, American Board of Pediatrics, Recertified 20021996
  • Diplomate, American Board of Allergy and Immunology, Recertified 2006 1997
  • MO, Medical License1998

Honors

  • Washington University Student Research Fellowship1989
  • ACAAI Travel Grant1996
  • The Distinguished Residents and Fellows Asthma Education Program, London, England1996
  • AAAAI Travel Grant, 1997 and 19981997
  • National Institutes of Health Pediatric Research Loan Repayment Award (renewal 2004-6)2002 - 2004
  • Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2005
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2013
  • Harvey R. Colten, MD Scholar in Pediatrics2015 - 2016
  • Donald B. Strominger Professor of Pediatrics2016 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (114)


  1. Zhou Y, Bacharier LB, Isaacson-Schmid M, Baty J, Schechtman KB, Sajol G, Wylie K, Storch GA, Castro M, Beigelman A. Azithromycin therapy during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: Upper airway microbiome alterations and subsequent recurrent wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27339392  
  2. Horner CC, Dula C, Bacharier LB, Garbutt JM, Gonzalez C, Deych E, Shannon WD, Strunk RC. Daily global stress is associated with nocturnal asthma awakenings in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27246525  
  3. Kaiser S, Huynh T, Bacharier L, Rosenthal J, Bakel L, Parkin P, Cabana M. Preventing Exacerbations in Preschoolers with Recurrent Wheeze: A Meta-Analysis Pediatrics (In Press). 2016. 
  4. Reid, B., Girodet, P., Boomer, J.S., Abdel-Gadir, A., Zheng, K., Wechsler, M.E., Bacharier, L.B., Kunselman, S.J., King, T.S., Israel, E., Castro, M., Cernadas, M., Green JM. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D insufficient asthmatics does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol (In Press). 2016. 
  5. Beigelman A, Bacharier LB. Early-life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):172-8. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000244  PMID:26854761  
  6. Kitcharoensakkul M, Bacharier LB, Yin-Declue H, Boomer JS, Burgdorf D, Wilson B, Schechtman K, Castro M. Temporal biological variability in dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults. J Immunol Methods. 2016;431:63-5. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2016.02.006  PMCID:PMC4801223  PMID:26859243  
  7. Wandalsen GF, Solé D, Bacharier LB. Identification of infants and preschool children at risk for asthma: predictive scores and biomarkers. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):120-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000240  PMID:26807784  
  8. Jiao J, King TS, McKenzie M, Bacharier LB, Dixon AE, Codispoti CD, Dunn RM, Grossman NL, Lugogo NL, Ramratnam SK, Traister RS, Wechsler ME, Castro M, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet. Vitamin D3 therapy in patients with asthma complicated by sinonasal disease: Secondary analysis of the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1329  PMID:26971692  
  9. Kakumanu S, Jaffee K, Visness CM, Dresen A, Burger M, Witter FR, O'Connor GT, Cruikshank WW, Shreffler WG, Bacharier LB, Gern JE. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016;4(1):80-90. doi:10.1002/iid3.96  PMCID:PMC4768071  PMID:27042305  
  10. Reid B, Girodet PO, Boomer JS, Abdel-Gadir A, Zheng K, Wechsler ME, Bacharier LB, Kunselman SJ, King TS, Israel E, Castro M, Cernadas M, Green JM. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D-insufficient asthmatic patients does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.030  PMID:26874367  
  11. Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Laranjo N, Harshfield BJ, McElrath TF, O'Connor GT, Sandel M, Iverson RE Jr, Lee-Paritz A, Strunk RC, Bacharier LB, Macones GA, Zeiger RS, Schatz M, Hollis BW, Hornsby E, Hawrylowicz C, Wu AC, Weiss ST. Effect of Prenatal Supplementation With Vitamin D on Asthma or Recurrent Wheezing in Offspring by Age 3 Years: The VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):362-70. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18589  PMID:26813209  
  12. Beigelman A, Bacharier LB. Management of Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing: Lessons from the NHLBI's Asthma Research Networks. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(1):1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.10.003  PMCID:PMC4715860  PMID:26772922  
  13. Bacharier LB. The recurrently wheezing preschool child-benign or asthma in the making? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(6):463-70. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2015.09.019  PMID:26653278  
  14. Dillon MB, Schulten V, Oseroff C, Paul S, Dullanty LM, Frazier A, Belles X, Piulachs MD, Visness C, Bacharier L, Bloomberg GR, Busse P, Sidney J, Peters B, Sette A. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(12):1856-67. doi:10.1111/cea.12643  PMCID:PMC4654660  PMID:26414909  
  15. Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW, Mauger DT, Boehmer S, Beigelman A, Fitzpatrick AM, Jackson DJ, Baxi SN, Benson M, Burnham CA, Cabana M, Castro M, Chmiel JF, Covar R, Daines M, Gaffin JM, Gentile DA, Holguin F, Israel E, Kelly HW, Lazarus SC, Lemanske RF Jr, Ly N, Meade K, Morgan W, Moy J, Olin T, Peters SP, Phipatanakul W, Pongracic JA, Raissy HH, Ross K, Sheehan WJ, Sorkness C, Szefler SJ, Teague WG, Thyne S, Martinez FD, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s AsthmaNet. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015;314(19):2034-44. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13896  PMCID:PMC4757487  PMID:26575060  
  16. Beigelman A, Bacharier LB. Reply: To PMID 25458910. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1135-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.013  PMID:26309182  
  17. Beigelman A, Bacharier LB, Baty J, Buller R, Mason S, Schechtman KB, Sajol G, Isaacson-Schmid M, Castro M, Storch GA. Does azithromycin modify viral load during severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1129-31. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.06.011  PMCID:PMC4600448  PMID:26215052  
  18. Beigelman A, Castro M, Schweiger TL, Wilson BS, Zheng J, Yin-DeClue H, Sajol G, Giri T, Sierra OL, Isaacson-Schmid M, Sumino K, Schechtman KB, Bacharier LB. Vitamin D Levels Are Unrelated to the Severity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Among Hospitalized Infants. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4(3):182-8. doi:10.1093/jpids/piu042  PMCID:PMC4554201  PMID:26336601  
  19. Smith LJ, Kalhan R, Wise RA, Sugar EA, Lima JJ, Irvin CG, Dozor AJ, Holbrook JT, American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(20):2033-43. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5024  PMID:26010632  
  20. Coverstone A, Bacharier LB, Fitzpatrick AM. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015;15(5):20. doi:10.1007/s11882-015-0521-5  PMID:26134431  
  21. Beigelman A, Isaacson-Schmid M, Sajol G, Baty J, Rodriguez OM, Leege E, Lyons K, Schweiger TL, Zheng J, Schechtman KB, Castro M, Bacharier LB. Randomized trial to evaluate azithromycin's effects on serum and upper airway IL-8 levels and recurrent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(5):1171-1178.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.001  PMCID:PMC4426225  PMID:25458910  
  22. Gerald JK, Gerald LB, Vasquez MM, Morgan WJ, Boehmer SJ, Lemanske RF Jr, Mauger DT, Strunk RC, Szefler SJ, Zeiger RS, Bacharier LB, Bade E, Covar RA, Guilbert TW, Heidarian-Raissy H, Kelly HW, Malka-Rais J, Sorkness CA, Taussig LM, Chinchilli VM, Martinez FD. Markers of Differential Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment Among Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.01.023  PMID:25783161  
  23. Beigelman A, Chipps BE, Bacharier LB. Update on the utility of corticosteroids in acute pediatric respiratory disorders. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(5):332-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3865  PMCID:PMC4548893  PMID:26314814  
  24. Strunk RC, Colvin R, Bacharier LB, Fuhlbrigge A, Forno E, Arbelaez AM, Tantisira KG, Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):765-71.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009  PMCID:PMC4568157  PMID:26164807  
  25. Torgerson DG, Giri T, Druley TE, Zheng J, Huntsman S, Seibold MA, Young AL, Schweiger T, Yin-Declue H, Sajol GD, Schechtman KB, Hernandez RD, Randolph AG, Bacharier LB, Castro M. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142649  PMCID:PMC4654486  PMID:26587832  
  26. Lynch SV, Wood RA, Boushey H, Bacharier LB, Bloomberg GR, Kattan M, O'Connor GT, Sandel MT, Calatroni A, Matsui E, Johnson CC, Lynn H, Visness CM, Jaffee KF, Gergen PJ, Gold DR, Wright RJ, Fujimura K, Rauch M, Busse WW, Gern JE. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):593-601.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.018  PMID:24908147  
  27. Witt CA, Sheshadri A, Carlstrom L, Tarsi J, Kozlowski J, Wilson B, Gierada DS, Hoffman E, Fain SB, Cook-Granroth J, Sajol G, Sierra O, Giri T, O'Neill M, Zheng J, Schechtman KB, Bacharier LB, Jarjour N, Busse W, Castro M, NHLBI Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Longitudinal changes in airway remodeling and air trapping in severe asthma. Acad Radiol. 2014;21(8):986-93. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2014.05.001  PMCID:PMC4100072  PMID:25018070  
  28. Dinakar C, Oppenheimer J, Portnoy J, Bacharier LB, Li J, Kercsmar CM, Bernstein D, Blessing-Moore J, Khan D, Lang D, Nicklas R, Randolph C, Schuller D, Spector S, Tilles SA, Wallace D, Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, Practice Parameter Workgroup, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Management of acute loss of asthma control in the yellow zone: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;113(2):143-59. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2014.05.017  PMID:25065350  
  29. Bousquet J, Gern JE, Martinez FD, Anto JM, Johnson CC, Holt PG, Lemanske RF Jr, Le Souëf PN, Tepper RS, von Mutius ER, Arshad SH, Bacharier LB, Becker A, Belanger K, Bergström A, Bernstein DI, Cabana MD, Carroll KN, Castro M, Cooper PJ, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Henderson J, Heinrich J, Hong SJ, Jackson DJ, Keil T, Kozyrskyj AL, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Miller RL, Momas I, Morgan WJ, Noel P, Ownby DR, Pinart M, Ryan PH, Schwaninger JM, Sears MR, Simpson A, Smit HA, Stern DA, Subbarao P, Valenta R, Wang X, Weiss ST, Wood R, Wright AL, Wright RJ, Togias A, Gergen PJ. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(6):1535-46. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.018  PMCID:PMC4088262  PMID:24636091  
  30. Castro M, King TS, Kunselman SJ, Cabana MD, Denlinger L, Holguin F, Kazani SD, Moore WC, Moy J, Sorkness CA, Avila P, Bacharier LB, Bleecker E, Boushey HA, Chmiel J, Fitzpatrick AM, Gentile D, Hundal M, Israel E, Kraft M, Krishnan JA, LaForce C, Lazarus SC, Lemanske R, Lugogo N, Martin RJ, Mauger DT, Naureckas E, Peters SP, Phipatanakul W, Que LG, Sheshadri A, Smith L, Solway J, Sullivan-Vedder L, Sumino K, Wechsler ME, Wenzel S, White SR, Sutherland ER, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s AsthmaNet. Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(20):2083-91. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5052  PMID:24838406  
  31. Beigelman A, Zeiger RS, Mauger D, Strunk RC, Jackson DJ, Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Covar R, Szefler SJ, Taussig LM, Bacharier LB, Childhood Asthma Research and Education (CARE) Network of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The association between vitamin D status and the rate of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1489-92, 1492.e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.024  PMCID:PMC4086617  PMID:24698320  
  32. Litonjua AA, Lange NE, Carey VJ, Brown S, Laranjo N, Harshfield BJ, O'Connor GT, Sandel M, Strunk RC, Bacharier LB, Zeiger RS, Schatz M, Hollis BW, Weiss ST. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014;38(1):37-50. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2014.02.006  PMCID:PMC4086903  PMID:24614387  
  33. Wandalsen GF, Chong-Neto HJ, de Souza FS, Solé D, Bacharier LB. Early weight gain and the development of asthma and atopy in children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):126-30. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000037  PMID:24451911  
  34. Beigelman A, Weinstock GM, Bacharier LB. The relationships between environmental bacterial exposure, airway bacterial colonization, and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):137-42. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000036  PMID:24451910  
  35. Beigelman A, Bacharier LB. Infection-induced wheezing in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):603-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.12.001  PMCID:PMC4086475  PMID:24636478  
  36. Rabinovitch N, Mauger DT, Reisdorph N, Covar R, Malka J, Lemanske RF Jr, Morgan WJ, Guilbert TW, Zeiger RS, Bacharier LB, Szefler SJ. Predictors of asthma control and lung function responsiveness to step 3 therapy in children with uncontrolled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):350-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.07.039  PMCID:PMC3960329  PMID:24084071  
  37. Guilbert TW, Bacharier LB, Fitzpatrick AM. Severe asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(5):489-500. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2014.06.022  PMID:25213041  
  38. Beigelman A, Bacharier LB. The role of early life viral bronchiolitis in the inception of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;13(2):211-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835eb6ef  PMID:23385289  
  39. Beigelman A, King TS, Mauger D, Zeiger RS, Strunk RC, Kelly HW, Martinez FD, Lemanske RF Jr, Rivera-Spoljaric K, Jackson DJ, Guilbert T, Covar R, Bacharier LB, Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Do oral corticosteroids reduce the severity of acute lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with recurrent wheezing? J Allergy Clin Immunol(In Press). 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.034  PMID:23498594  
  40. Newton LP, Osei-Akosa Y, Strunk RC, Krauss M, Bacharier LB, Garbutt JM, Rivera-Spoljaric K. Nonrespiratory symptoms before loss of asthma control in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(3):304-6.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2013.01.012  PMID:24565492  
  41. Luhmann SJ, Sucato DJ, Bacharier L, Ellis A, Woerz C. Intraoperative anaphylaxis secondary to intraosseous gelatin administration. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33(5):e58-60. doi:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3182857d88  PMID:23752162  
  42. Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW. Diagnosis and management of early asthma in preschool-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):287-96; quiz 297-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.025  PMID:22664162  
  43. Papadopoulos NG, Arakawa H, Carlsen KH, Custovic A, Gern J, Lemanske R, Le Souef P, Mäkelä M, Roberts G, Wong G, Zar H, Akdis CA, Bacharier LB, Baraldi E, van Bever HP, de Blic J, Boner A, Burks W, Casale TB, Castro-Rodriguez JA, Chen YZ, El-Gamal YM, Everard ML, Frischer T, Geller M, Gereda J, Goh DY, Guilbert TW, Hedlin G, Heymann PW, Hong SJ, Hossny EM, Huang JL, Jackson DJ, de Jongste JC, Kalayci O, Aït-Khaled N, Kling S, Kuna P, Lau S, Ledford DK, Lee SI, Liu AH, Lockey RF, Lødrup-Carlsen K, Lötvall J, Morikawa A, Nieto A, Paramesh H, Pawankar R, Pohunek P, Pongracic J, Price D, Robertson C, Rosario N, Rossenwasser LJ, Sly PD, Stein R, Stick S, Szefler S, Taussig LM, Valovirta E, Vichyanond P, Wallace D, Weinberg E, Wennergren G, Wildhaber J, Zeiger RS. International consensus on (ICON) pediatric asthma. Allergy. 2012;67(8):976-97. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02865.x  PMID:22702533  
  44. Bacharier LB, Cohen R, Schweiger T, Yin-Declue H, Christie C, Zheng J, Schechtman KB, Strunk RC, Castro M. Determinants of asthma after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(1):91-100.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.010  PMCID:PMC3612548  PMID:22444510  
  45. Fitzpatrick AM, Baena-Cagnani CE, Bacharier LB. Severe asthma in childhood: recent advances in phenotyping and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(2):193-201. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835090ac  PMCID:PMC3310912  PMID:22249197  
  46. Writing Committee for the American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers, Holbrook JT, Wise RA, Gold BD, Blake K, Brown ED, Castro M, Dozor AJ, Lima JJ, Mastronarde JG, Sockrider MM, Teague WG. Lansoprazole for children with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307(4):373-81. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2035  PMID:22274684  
  47. Beigelman A, Strunk RC, Garbutt JM, Schechtman KB, Jaenicke MW, Stein JS, Bacharier LB. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with negative oral food challenges. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(6):467-73. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3607  PMCID:PMC3522388  PMID:23394503  
  48. Bacharier LB. Step-down therapy in asthma: a focus on treatment options for patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonist combination therapy. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(1):13-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3493  PMID:22183083  
  49. Zeiger RS, Mauger D, Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW, Martinez FD, Lemanske RF Jr, Strunk RC, Covar R, Szefler SJ, Boehmer S, Jackson DJ, Sorkness CA, Gern JE, Kelly HW, Friedman NJ, Mellon MH, Schatz M, Morgan WJ, Chinchilli VM, Raissy HH, Bade E, Malka-Rais J, Beigelman A, Taussig LM, CARE Network of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Daily or intermittent budesonide in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):1990-2001. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1104647  PMCID:PMC3247621  PMID:22111718  
  50. Horner CC, Mauger D, Strunk RC, Graber NJ, Lemanske RF Jr, Sorkness CA, Szefler SJ, Zeiger RS, Taussig LM, Bacharier LB, Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Most nocturnal asthma symptoms occur outside of exacerbations and associate with morbidity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):977-82.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.018  PMCID:PMC3408598  PMID:21855126  
  51. Rivera-Spoljaric K, Jaenicke M, Sridhar S, Krauss MJ, Garbutt JM, Bacharier LB, Strunk RC. Caregivers report a wide variety of early signs and symptoms of impending asthma exacerbations that are not different between preschool and school-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):1109-11.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.033  PMID:21906791  
  52. Guilbert TW, Mauger DT, Allen DB, Zeiger RS, Lemanske RF Jr, Szefler SJ, Strunk RC, Bacharier LB, Covar R, Sorkness CA, Taussig LM, Martinez FD, Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Growth of preschool children at high risk for asthma 2 years after discontinuation of fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):956-63.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.027  PMCID:PMC3224818  PMID:21820163  
  53. Bacharier LB. Evaluation of the child with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(3):690.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.034  PMID:21878246  
  54. Chipps BE, Bacharier LB, Harder JM. Phenotypic expressions of childhood wheezing and asthma: implications for therapy. J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):878-884.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.01.057  PMID:21429508  
  55. Martinez FD, Chinchilli VM, Morgan WJ, Boehmer SJ, Lemanske RF Jr, Mauger DT, Strunk RC, Szefler SJ, Zeiger RS, Bacharier LB, Bade E, Covar RA, Friedman NJ, Guilbert TW, Heidarian-Raissy H, Kelly HW, Malka-Rais J, Mellon MH, Sorkness CA, Taussig L. Use of beclomethasone dipropionate as rescue treatment for children with mild persistent asthma (TREXA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9766):650-7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62145-9  PMID:21324520  
  56. Fitzpatrick AM, Teague WG, Meyers DA, Peters SP, Li X, Li H, Wenzel SE, Aujla S, Castro M, Bacharier LB, Gaston BM, Bleecker ER, Moore WC, National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program. Heterogeneity of severe asthma in childhood: confirmation by cluster analysis of children in the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):382-389.e1-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.015  PMCID:PMC3060668  PMID:21195471  
  57. Lötvall J, Akdis CA, Bacharier LB, Bjermer L, Casale TB, Custovic A, Lemanske RF Jr, Wardlaw AJ, Wenzel SE, Greenberger PA. Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):355-60. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.037  PMID:21281866  
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