Leonard B. Bacharier, M.D.  bacharier_l@wustl.edu

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Robert C. Strunk Endowed Chair for Lung and Respiratory Research
Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine
Unit Co-Leader, Patient Oriented Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Patient Oriented Research UnitAllergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2694

Clinical Interests

Dr. Bacharier is the Robert C Strunk Endowed Chair for Lung and Respiratory Research, Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine, USA Clinical Director of the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine, and Unit Co-Leader for the Pediatric Patient Oriented Research Unit. He received his undergraduate degree in biophysics from The Johns Hopkins University, USA and his medical degree from Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Bacharier was an intern and resident in pediatrics at St. Louis Children's Hospital and a fellow in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School. He was a recipient of the 2005 Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education from Washington University School of Medicine and is a member of several organizations including the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the American Thoracic Society. Dr. Bacharier's research focuses on childhood asthma. Specifically, he is a Principal Investigator in the NHLBI-funded AsthmaNet, a multi-centered network examining therapeutic approaches to childhood asthma. He is an investigator in the NHLBI’s PrecISE Program for Severe Asthma and the Inner City Asthma Consortium’s URECA study examining the influence of urban environments on the development of asthma and allergic disorders. He is also an Investigator in the American Lung Association’s Asthma Clinical Research Center Network. Dr. Bacharier is also currently investigating the role of early infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus upon the subsequent development of asthma.


  • BA, General and Department Honors, The Johns Hopkins University1988
  • MD, Washington University School of Medicine1992


  • Internship and Residency, St. Louis Children's Hospital1992 - 1995
  • Fellowship , Children's Hospital, Boston and Harvard Medical School 1995 - 1998

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Diplomate, National Board of Medical Examiners, 1993 - Pres
  • Diplomate, American Board of Pediatrics, Recertified 2002, 1996 - Pres
  • Diplomate, American Board of Allergy and Immunology, Recertified 2006 , 1997 - Pres
  • MO, Medical License, 1998 - Pres


  • Washington University Student Research Fellowship1989
  • ACAAI Travel Grant1996
  • The Distinguished Residents and Fellows Asthma Education Program, London, England1996
  • AAAAI Travel Grant, 1997 and 19981997
  • National Institutes of Health Pediatric Research Loan Repayment Award (renewal 2004-6)2002 - 2004
  • Samuel R. Goldstein Leadership Award in Medical Student Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2005
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO2013
  • Harvey R. Colten, MD Scholar in Pediatrics2015 - 2016

Recent Publications view all (160)

  1. Intestinal microbial-derived sphingolipids are inversely associated with childhood food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142(1):335-338.e9. PMID:29729303 
  2. Recurrent wheezing in children following human metapneumovirus infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142(1):297-301.e2. PMID:29481834 
  3. Prenatal and early-life triclosan and paraben exposure and allergic outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142(1):269-278.e15. PMCID:PMC5924494  PMID:29111213 
  4. Consistently very poorly controlled asthma is associated with greater activity and school impairment in children with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018. PMID:29883753 
  5. The pediatric asthma yardstick: Practical recommendations for a sustained step-up in asthma therapy for children with inadequately controlled asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018;120(6):559-579.e11. PMID:29653238 
  6. Inhaled Glucocorticoids in Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(21):2051. PMID:29791825 
  7. Clinical characterization of children with resistant airflow obstruction, a multicenter study. J Asthma. 2018;1-7. PMID:29771599 
  8. Effects of endogenous sex hormones on lung function and symptom control in adolescents with asthma. BMC Pulm Med. 2018;18(1):58. PMCID:PMC5891903  PMID:29631584 
  9. Early-life home environment and risk of asthma among inner-city children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):1468-1475. PMID:28939248 
  10. Caregiver and pediatric provider perspectives on symptom-based inhaled corticosteroid therapy in asthma. Respir Med. 2018;137:201-205. PMID:29605205 
  11. Overweight/obesity status in preschool children associates with worse asthma but robust improvement on inhaled corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(4):1459-1467.e2. PMID:29273557 
  12. Development of Asthma in Inner-City Children: Possible Roles of MAIT Cells and Variation in the Home Environment. J Immunol. 2018;200(6):1995-2003. PMCID:PMC5840005  PMID:29431692 
  13. Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(10):891-901. PMCID:PMC5972517  PMID:29504498 
  14. Allergen-induced activation of natural killer cells represents an early-life immune response in the development of allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018. PMID:29518416 
  15. Spirometry and Impulse Oscillometry in Preschool Children: Acceptability and Relationship to Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018. PMID:29449165 
  16. Aeroallergen sensitization predicts acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2018;180(4):571-577. PMCID:PMC5945280  PMID:29363738 
  17. Baseline Features of the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP III) Cohort: Differences with Age. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018;6(2):545-554.e4. PMCID:PMC5832534  PMID:28866107 
  18. The Association of Maternal Asthma and Early Pregnancy Vitamin D with Risk of Preeclampsia: An Observation From Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018;6(2):600-608.e2. PMCID:PMC5843492  PMID:28923490 
  19. Screen Time Engagement Is Increased in Urban Children With Asthma. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017;56(11):1048-1053. PMID:28871879 
  20. Severe Asthma in Children J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):889-898. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2017.04.031  PMID:28689839 
  21. A prospective microbiome-wide association study of food sensitization and food allergy in early childhood. Allergy. 2017. PMID:28632934 
  22. Asthma control status in pregnancy, body mass index, and maternal vitamin D levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28606587 
  23. Effects of Age and Disease Severity on Systemic Corticosteroid Responses in Asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(11):1439-1448. PMCID:PMC5470749  PMID:27967215 
  24. Microbes and the Role of Antibiotic Treatment for Wheezy Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17(5):34. PMID:28456910 
  25. BMAL1 links the circadian clock to viral airway pathology and asthma phenotypes. Mucosal Immunol. 2017. PMID:28401936 
  26. Strategies to alter the natural history of childhood asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):139-145. PMID:28079559 
  27. Pediatric asthma - moving ahead faster than ever. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):96-98. PMID:28225363 
  28. Management of preschool recurrent wheezing and asthma: a phenotype-based approach. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):131-138. PMID:28118241 
  29. Reducing Exposure to Mouse Allergen Among Children and Adolescents With Asthma Is Achievable, but Is It Enough? JAMA. 2017;317(10):1023-1025. PMID:28264092 
  30. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, prenatal 25(OH)D levels, race, and subsequent asthma or recurrent wheeze in offspring: Secondary analyses from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28285844 
  31. Inflammatory and Comorbid Features of Patients with Severe Asthma and Frequent Exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(3):302-313. PMCID:PMC5328178  PMID:27556234 
  32. Factors influencing the infant gut microbiome at age 3-6 months: Findings from the ethnically diverse Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(2):482-491.e14. PMCID:PMC5303123  PMID:27746239 
  33. Editorial: moving ahead faster than ever. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMID:28141627 
  34. Patterns of immune development in urban preschoolers with recurrent wheeze and/or atopy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017. PMCID:PMC5509531  PMID:28089873 
  35. Individualized therapy for persistent asthma in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(6):1608-1618.e12. PMCID:PMC5148729  PMID:27777180 
  36. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Invest. 2016;126(12):4702-4715. PMCID:PMC5127689  PMID:27841759 
  37. Treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma-consistent effect of anti-interleukin-5 antibodies? Lancet. 2016;388(10056):2059-2060. PMID:27609409 
  38. Distinguishing characteristics of difficult-to-control asthma in inner-city children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(4):1030-1041. PMCID:PMC5379996  PMID:27720017 
  39. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(7):619-30. PMCID:PMC5085065  PMID:27532828 
  40. Preventing Exacerbations in Preschoolers With Recurrent Wheeze: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2016;137(6). PMID:27230765 
  41. Azithromycin therapy during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: Upper airway microbiome alterations and subsequent recurrent wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27339392 
  42. Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Children--Reply. JAMA. 2016;315(19):2122-3. PMID:27187309 
  43. Daily global stress is associated with nocturnal asthma awakenings in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID:27246525 
  44. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D insufficient asthmatics does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol (In Press). 2016. 
  45. Early-life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):172-8. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000244  PMID:26854761 
  46. Temporal biological variability in dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults. J Immunol Methods. 2016;431:63-5. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2016.02.006  PMCID:PMC4801223  PMID:26859243 
  47. Identification of infants and preschool children at risk for asthma: predictive scores and biomarkers. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16(2):120-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000240  PMID:26807784 
  48. Vitamin D3 therapy in patients with asthma complicated by sinonasal disease: Secondary analysis of the Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1329  PMID:26971692 
  49. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016;4(1):80-90. doi:10.1002/iid3.96  PMCID:PMC4768071  PMID:27042305 
  50. Vitamin D3 treatment of vitamin D-insufficient asthmatic patients does not alter immune cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.030  PMID:26874367 
  51. Effect of Prenatal Supplementation With Vitamin D on Asthma or Recurrent Wheezing in Offspring by Age 3 Years: The VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):362-70. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18589  PMID:26813209 
  52. Management of Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing: Lessons from the NHLBI's Asthma Research Networks. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(1):1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.10.003  PMCID:PMC4715860  PMID:26772922 
  53. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(12):1856-67. doi:10.1111/cea.12643  PMCID:PMC4654660  PMID:26414909 
  54. The recurrently wheezing preschool child-benign or asthma in the making? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(6):463-70. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2015.09.019  PMID:26653278 
  55. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2015;314(19):2034-44. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13896  PMCID:PMC4757487  PMID:26575060 
  56. Reply: To PMID 25458910. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1135-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.013  PMID:26309182 
  57. Does azithromycin modify viral load during severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1129-31. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.06.011  PMCID:PMC4600448  PMID:26215052 
  58. Vitamin D Levels Are Unrelated to the Severity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Among Hospitalized Infants. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4(3):182-8. doi:10.1093/jpids/piu042  PMCID:PMC4554201  PMID:26336601 
  59. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(20):2033-43. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5024  PMID:26010632 
  60. Randomized trial to evaluate azithromycin's effects on serum and upper airway IL-8 levels and recurrent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(5):1171-1178.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.001  PMCID:PMC4426225  PMID:25458910 
  61. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015;15(5):20. doi:10.1007/s11882-015-0521-5  PMID:26134431 
  62. Markers of Differential Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment Among Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.01.023  PMID:25783161 
  63. Update on the utility of corticosteroids in acute pediatric respiratory disorders. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(5):332-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3865  PMCID:PMC4548893  PMID:26314814 
  64. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):765-71.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.05.009  PMCID:PMC4568157  PMID:26164807 
  65. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142649  PMCID:PMC4654486  PMID:26587832 
  66. Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):593-601.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.018  PMID:24908147 
  67. Longitudinal changes in airway remodeling and air trapping in severe asthma. Acad Radiol. 2014;21(8):986-93. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2014.05.001  PMCID:PMC4100072  PMID:25018070 
  68. Management of acute loss of asthma control in the yellow zone: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;113(2):143-59. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2014.05.017  PMID:25065350 
  69. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(6):1535-46. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.018  PMCID:PMC4088262  PMID:24636091 
  70. Early-life weight gain, prematurity, and asthma development. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1330-1. PMID:24766877 
  71. The association between vitamin D status and the rate of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(5):1489-92, 1492.e1-3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.024  PMCID:PMC4086617  PMID:24698320 
  72. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children. Contemp Clin Trials. 2014;38(1):37-50. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2014.02.006  PMCID:PMC4086903  PMID:24614387 
  73. Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(20):2083-91. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5052  PMID:24838406 
  74. The relationships between environmental bacterial exposure, airway bacterial colonization, and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):137-42. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000036  PMID:24451910 
  75. Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2(4):267-76. PMID:24717623 
  76. Early weight gain and the development of asthma and atopy in children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(2):126-30. doi:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000037  PMID:24451911 
  77. The challenge of treating preschool wheezing episodes: the need for evidence-based approaches. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(4):1016-7. PMCID:PMC4121115  PMID:24529412 
  78. Infection-induced wheezing in young children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):603-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.12.001  PMCID:PMC4086475  PMID:24636478 
  79. Predictors of asthma control and lung function responsiveness to step 3 therapy in children with uncontrolled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):350-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.07.039  PMCID:PMC3960329  PMID:24084071 
  80. Severe asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(5):489-500. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2014.06.022  PMID:25213041 
  81. Vitamin D status at birth: an important and potentially modifiable determinant of atopic disease in childhood? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(1):154-5. PMID:24001801 
  82. The role of early life viral bronchiolitis in the inception of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;13(2):211-6. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835eb6ef  PMID:23385289 
  83. Do oral corticosteroids reduce the severity of acute lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with recurrent wheezing? J Allergy Clin Immunol(In Press). 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.034  PMID:23498594 
  84. Intraoperative anaphylaxis secondary to intraosseous gelatin administration. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33(5):e58-60. doi:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3182857d88  PMID:23752162 
  85. Nonrespiratory symptoms before loss of asthma control in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(3):304-6.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2013.01.012  PMID:24565492 
  86. Diagnosis and management of early asthma in preschool-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):287-96; quiz 297-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.04.025  PMID:22664162 
  87. International consensus on (ICON) pediatric asthma. Allergy. 2012;67(8):976-97. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02865.x  PMID:22702533 
  88. Determinants of asthma after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(1):91-100.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.010  PMCID:PMC3612548  PMID:22444510 
  89. Severe asthma in childhood: recent advances in phenotyping and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(2):193-201. doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e32835090ac  PMCID:PMC3310912  PMID:22249197 
  90. Lansoprazole for children with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307(4):373-81. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2035  PMID:22274684 
  91. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with negative oral food challenges. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(6):467-73. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3607  PMCID:PMC3522388  PMID:23394503 
  92. Step-down therapy in asthma: a focus on treatment options for patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonist combination therapy. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(1):13-8. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3493  PMID:22183083 
  93. Daily or intermittent budesonide in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):1990-2001. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1104647  PMCID:PMC3247621  PMID:22111718 
  94. Most nocturnal asthma symptoms occur outside of exacerbations and associate with morbidity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):977-82.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.018  PMCID:PMC3408598  PMID:21855126 
  95. Caregivers report a wide variety of early signs and symptoms of impending asthma exacerbations that are not different between preschool and school-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):1109-11.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.033  PMID:21906791 
  96. Growth of preschool children at high risk for asthma 2 years after discontinuation of fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(5):956-63.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.027  PMCID:PMC3224818  PMID:21820163 
  97. Evaluation of the child with recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(3):690.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.034  PMID:21878246 
  98. Phenotypic expressions of childhood wheezing and asthma: implications for therapy. J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):878-884.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.01.057  PMID:21429508 
  99. Controversies in the treatment of the acutely wheezing infant. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(10):1284-5. PMCID:PMC3114055  PMID:21596826 
  100. Use of beclomethasone dipropionate as rescue treatment for children with mild persistent asthma (TREXA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9766):650-7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62145-9  PMID:21324520 
  101. Heterogeneity of severe asthma in childhood: confirmation by cluster analysis of children in the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):382-389.e1-13. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.015  PMCID:PMC3060668  PMID:21195471 
  102. Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):355-60. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.037  PMID:21281866 
  103. Urinary leukotriene E4/exhaled nitric oxide ratio and montelukast response in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):545-51.e1-4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.008  PMCID:PMC2935914  PMID:20816189 
  104. Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio in relation to clinical and physiological parameters in asthmatic children with normal FEV1 values. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):527-34.e1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.05.016  PMCID:PMC2933964  PMID:20638110 
  105. Step-up therapy for children with uncontrolled asthma receiving inhaled corticosteroids. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(11):975-85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001278  PMCID:PMC2989902  PMID:20197425 
  106. Socioeconomic status associated with exhaled nitric oxide responses to acute stress in children with asthma. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(3):444-50. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.11.017  PMCID:PMC2826564  PMID:19961922 
  107. Relationship between infant weight gain and later asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(1 Pt 1):82-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00926.x  PMCID:PMC2887600  PMID:19725894 
  108. Viral-induced wheezing episodes in preschool children: approaches to therapy. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16(1):31-5. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32833303e6  PMID:19816178 
  109. Lower levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in peripheral blood are associated with a diagnosis of asthma 6 yr after severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20(5):471-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2008.00818.x  PMCID:PMC3515331  PMID:19140903 
  110. Effect of elevated exhaled nitric oxide levels on the risk of respiratory tract illness in preschool-aged children with moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(2):108-13. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60162-7  PMID:19739422 
  111. Signs and symptoms that precede wheezing in children with a pattern of moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. J Pediatr. 2009;154(6):877-81.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.12.029  PMCID:PMC3086348  PMID:19324370 
  112. Patient characteristics associated with improved outcomes with use of an inhaled corticosteroid in preschool children at risk for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(5):1077-82, 1082.e1-5. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.12.1120  PMCID:PMC2909590  PMID:19230959 
  113. Long-term budesonide or nedocromil treatment, once discontinued, does not alter the course of mild to moderate asthma in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009;154(5):682-7. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.11.036  PMCID:PMC2942076  PMID:19167726 
  114. Efficacy of esomeprazole for treatment of poorly controlled asthma. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(15):1487-99. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806290  PMCID:PMC2974569  PMID:19357404 
  115. Impulse oscillometry versus spirometry in a long-term study of controller therapy for pediatric asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(4):861-7.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.036  PMID:19070356 
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