Allan Doctor, M.D.

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Professor of Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine
Associate Professor, Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics
Researcher, Pathobiology
Critical Care Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2527

Clinical Interests

Dr. Doctor earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in Neurobiology (1984) and his Medical Degree (1989) at the University of Virginia. Following residency in Emergency Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, he completed additional training in Pediatrics, Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Pediatric Critical Care at The Children's Hospital, Boston. While at Harvard, Dr. Doctor’s research training focused upon novel means for the mechanical support of lung injury and for restoring lost control of regional pulmonary blood flow. Upon returning to the University of Virginia as PCCM Faculty, Dr. Doctor began to explore erythrocyte-based control of regional blood flow and made the observation that this signaling is disrupted in severe inflammatory states. This observation suggested the hypothesis that acquired injury to erythrocytes alters vascular control, regional blood flow regulation and O2 delivery homeostasis; the Doctor Lab pursues this question. He came to Washington University in 2006 as Director of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. After leading PCCM here for 10 years, Dr. Doctor stepped down as Division Director to focus upon his expanding research program, which explores the physiology of acquired red cell injury, translational transfusion medicine in the ICU setting, and development of a novel bio-synthetic artificial red cell to serve as a blood substitute. His global health projects are based in Blantyre, Malawi in collaboration with a large international malaria research group and range from mechanistic studies of infected red cell pathophysiology to clinical pathway implementation for the care of acutely ill children in resource-limited settings.


  • BA, University of Virginia1984
  • MD, University of Virginia1989


  • Resident in Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh 1989 - 1992
  • Fellow in Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital1992 - 1994
  • Resident in Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital1994 - 1996
  • Fellow in Critical Care, Boston Children's Hospital1996 - 1999

Licensure and Board Certification

  • PA, Board of Medicine, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1989
  • National Board of Medical Examiners; Certificate # 377227 1990
  • MA, Board of Registration in Medicine, Commonwealth of Massachusetts 1992
  • American Board of Emergency Medicine; Certificate # 920728; renewed 2004 1994
  • American Board of Pediatrics: Certificate # 226025322; renewed 2004, 2014 1997
  • Sub-board, Pediatric Emergency Medicine; Certificate # 920728, renewed 2008 1997
  • VA, Virginia Board of Medicine 1999
  • Sub-board, Pediatric Critical Care; Certificate # 898, renewed 2009, 2016 2000
  • MO, Missouri Board of Registration for the Healing Arts 2006


  • Student Research Fellowship in Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Virginia1985
  • Micromedex Prize for Best Educational Exhibit, Am. Coll. of Emergency Physicians1991
  • Ronald Steward Award for Excellence in Teaching, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA1992
  • Child Health Research Scholar, Dept. of Pediatrics, University of Virginia2001
  • Scholar's Award for Outstanding Research, Dept. of Pediatrics, University of Virginia2003
  • Battle Research Award, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia2004
  • Jury, Virginia Academy of Science2004
  • NIH/NIGMS Career Development Award (K08)2004
  • ASCI/AAP Travel Award, American Society of Clinical Investigation2005
  • Investigator, Children’s Discovery Institute2007
  • Alan Conn Visiting Professor, Department of Critical Care, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada2010
  • Best Doctors in America2013 - Pres
  • Best Doctors in Saint Louis2013 - Pres
  • AE Thompson Critical Cures Visiting Professor, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center2014
  • Open Pediatrics Visiting Professor in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital2015
  • Winner, Bear Cub Entrepreneurship Competition, Washington University in Saint Louis2015

Recent Publications view all (69)

  1. Experimental assessment of oxygen homeostasis during acute hemodilution: the integrated role of hemoglobin concentration and blood pressure. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2017;5(1):12. PMCID:PMC5332316  PMID:28251580 
  2. Controlling Phlebotomy Volume Diminishes PICU Transfusion: Implementation Processes and Impact. Pediatrics. 2017;140(2). PMID:28701427 
  3. Identifying Risk for Acute Kidney Injury in Infants and Children Following Cardiac Arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017. PMID:28737594 
  4. Three Hypothetical Inflammation Pathobiology Phenotypes and Pediatric Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure Outcome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(6):513-523. PMCID:PMC5457354  PMID:28410274 
  5. Factors Associated with Bleeding and Thrombosis in Children Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017. PMID:28328243 
  6. A Systemic Inflammation Mortality Risk Assessment Contingency Table for Severe Sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(2):143-150. PMCID:PMC5291785  PMID:27941423 
  7. RBC Distribution Width: Biomarker for Red Cell Dysfunction and Critical Illness Outcome? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(2):134-142. PMCID:PMC5291765  PMID:27832023 
  8. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(4):318-329. PMCID:PMC5310766  PMID:28118559 
  9. Modulating Vascular Hemodynamics With an Alpha Globin Mimetic Peptide (HbαX). Hypertension. 2016;68(6):1494-1503. PMCID:PMC5159279  PMID:27802421 
  10. Inherent Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection in the Long Stay Critically Ill Child Without Known Baseline Immunocompromise: A Post Hoc Analysis of the CRISIS Trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(11):1182-1186. PMCID:PMC5089838  PMID:27753764 
  11. Interaction Between 2 Nutraceutical Treatments and Host Immune Status in the Pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression Comparative Effectiveness Trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016. PMID:27660289 
  12. Inherent Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection in the Long Stay Critically Ill Child Without Known Baseline Immunocompromise: A Post -Hoc Analysis of the CRISIS Trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016. PMID:27379619 
  13. Optimizing Virus Identification in Critically Ill Children Suspected of Having an Acute Severe Viral Infection. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17(4):279-86. PMID:26895562 
  14. Family Presence During Pediatric Tracheal Intubations. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(3):e154627. PMID:26954533 
  15. Recommendations for utilization of the paracorporeal lung assist device in neonates and young children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Transplant. 2016;20(2):256-70. PMID:26899454 
  16. Fentanyl and Midazolam Are Ineffective in Reducing Episodic Intracranial Hypertension in Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Crit Care Med. 2016. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001558  PMID:26757162 
  17. Incidence and Outcomes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in PICUs. Crit Care Med. 2015. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001484  PMID:26646466 
  18. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium. Transfusion. 2015;55(9):2282-90. doi:10.1111/trf.13250  PMCID:PMC4573332  PMID:26260861 
  19. End-of-Life Practices Among Tertiary Care PICUs in the United States: A Multicenter Study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(7):e231-8. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000520  PMCID:PMC4562059  PMID:26335128 
  20. Simultaneous Prediction of New Morbidity, Mortality, and Survival Without New Morbidity From Pediatric Intensive Care: A New Paradigm for Outcomes Assessment. Crit Care Med. 2015. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001081  PMID:25985385 
  21. Meaning making during parent-physician bereavement meetings after a child's death. Health Psychol. 2015;34(4):453-61. doi:10.1037/hea0000153  PMCID:PMC4380228  PMID:25822059 
  22. Language Analysis as a Window to Bereaved Parents' Emotions During a Parent-Physician Bereavement Meeting. J Lang Soc Psychol. 2015;34(2):181-199. PMCID:PMC4696603  PMID:26726278 
  23. Association of bleeding and thrombosis with outcome in extracorporeal life support. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):167-74. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000317  PMID:25647124 
  24. Pediatric intensive care outcomes: development of new morbidities during pediatric critical care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014;15(9):821-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000250  PMID:25226501 
  25. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against life-threatening RT-PCR-confirmed influenza illness in US children, 2010-2012. J Infect Dis. 2014;210(5):674-83. PMID:24676207 
  26. Relationship between the functional status scale and the pediatric overall performance category and pediatric cerebral performance category scales. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(7):671-6. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5316  PMID:24862461 
  27. Citrate anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric critical care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014;15(5):471-85. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000148  PMID:24777299 
  28. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:30-4. PMID:24296434 
  29. Feasibility and perceived benefits of a framework for physician-parent follow-up meetings after a child's death in the PICU. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(1):148-57. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a26ff3  PMCID:PMC3867593  PMID:24105453 
  30. Ratio of PICU versus ward cardiopulmonary resuscitation events is increasing. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(10):2292-7. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828cf0c0  PMCID:PMC3783604  PMID:23921270 
  31. The ideal time interval for critical care severity-of-illness assessment. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(5):448-53. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31828a7270  PMCID:PMC3720693  PMID:23628831 
  32. Critical pertussis illness in children: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(4):356-65. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31828a70fe  PMCID:PMC3885763  PMID:23548960 
  33. Sickle hemoglobin disturbs normal coupling among erythrocyte O2 content, glycolysis, and antioxidant capacity. Blood. 2013;121(9):1651-62. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-02-414037  PMCID:PMC3587328  PMID:23297128 
  34. Effect of implementation of a paediatric neurocritical care programme on outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(1):45-52. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70269-7  PMID:23200264 
  35. Fatal and near-fatal asthma in children: the critical care perspective. J Pediatr. 2012;161(2):214-21.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.02.041  PMCID:PMC3402707  PMID:22494876 
  36. Evolution of surfactant protein-D levels in children with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012;47(3):292-9. doi:10.1002/ppul.21548  PMID:21901856 
  37. Critically ill children during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011;128(6):e1450-8. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0774  PMCID:PMC3387899  PMID:22065262 
  38. Nitric oxide during altitude acclimatization. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(20):1942-4. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1107887  PMCID:PMC3596889  PMID:22087700 
  39. Direct regulation of striated muscle myosins by nitric oxide and endogenous nitrosothiols. PLoS One. 2010;5(6):e11209. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011209  PMCID:PMC2887846  PMID:20585450 
  40. Fresh goat's milk for infants: myths and realities--a review. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):e973-7. PMID:20231186 
  41. Hypoxia limits antioxidant capacity in red blood cells by altering glycolytic pathway dominance. FASEB J. 2009;23(9):3159-70. doi:10.1096/fj.09-130666  PMCID:PMC2735367  PMID:19417084 
  42. SNO-hemoglobin and hypoxic vasodilation. Nat Med. 2008;14(10):1009-10. doi:10.1038/nm1008-1009a  PMID:18841128 
  43. Transnitrosation signals oxyhemoglobin desaturation. Circ Res. 2008;103(5):441-3. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.183442  PMCID:PMC2738832  PMID:18757830 
  44. Validating the genomic signature of pediatric septic shock. Physiol Genomics. 2008;34(1):127-34. PMCID:PMC2440641  PMID:18460642 
  45. Evolution of adverse changes in stored RBCs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(43):17063-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0708160104  PMCID:PMC2040393  PMID:17940021 
  46. S-nitrosothiols signal hypoxia-mimetic vascular pathology. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(9):2592-601. doi:10.1172/JCI29444  PMCID:PMC1952618  PMID:17786245 
  47. Genome-level expression profiles in pediatric septic shock indicate a role for altered zinc homeostasis in poor outcome. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30(2):146-55. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00024.2007  PMCID:PMC2770262  PMID:17374846 
  48. Functional regulation of T-type calcium channels by s-nitrosothiols in the rat thalamus. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97(4):2712-21. doi:10.1152/jn.00926.2006  PMID:17287440 
  49. Genome-level longitudinal expression of signaling pathways and gene networks in pediatric septic shock. Mol Med. 2007;13(9-10):495-508. doi:10.2119/2007-00065.Shanley  PMCID:PMC2014731  PMID:17932561 
  50. Alveolar macrophage activation is a key initiation signal for acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291(5):L1018-26. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00086.2006  PMID:16861385 
  51. Detecting physiologic fluctuations in the S-nitrosohemoglobin micropopulation: Triiodide versus 3C. Blood. 2006;108(9):3225-6. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-05-026047  PMID:17057023 
  52. Buffering airway acid decreases exhaled nitric oxide in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(4):817-22. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.06.040  PMID:17030232 
  53. S-nitrosylating agents: a novel class of compounds that increase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression and maturation in epithelial cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70(4):1435-42. doi:10.1124/mol.106.023242  PMID:16857740 
  54. Effects of nitroglycerin on erythrocyte rheology and oxygen unloading: novel role of S-nitrosohemoglobin in relieving myocardial ischemia. Circulation. 2006;113(21):2502-8. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.627091  PMID:16717147 
  55. Hemoglobin conformation couples erythrocyte S-nitrosothiol content to O2 gradients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(16):5709-14. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407490102  PMCID:PMC556285  PMID:15824313 
  56. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1. Biochem J. 2004;380(Pt 1):67-74. doi:10.1042/BJ20031687  PMCID:PMC1224145  PMID:14766015 
  57. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha from resident lung cells is a key initiating factor in pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127(2):541-7. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2003.09.008  PMID:14762366 
  58. Extended high-frequency partial liquid ventilation in lung injury: gas exchange, injury quantification, and vapor loss. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95(3):1248-58. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00598.2002  PMID:12754177 
  59. Inhaled prostacyclin for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(12):2762-4. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000038283.12739.39  PMID:12483070 
  60. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation of the perfluorocarbon-filled lung: dose-response relationships in an animal model of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(4):847-54. PMID:11373481 
  61. Optimizing intrapulmonary perfluorocarbon distribution: fluoroscopic comparison of mode of ventilation and body position. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(3):601-8. PMID:11373428 
  62. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation of the perfluorocarbon-filled lung: preliminary results in an animal model of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(11):2500-7. PMID:10579271 
  63. Pulmonary blood flow distribution during partial liquid ventilation. J Appl Physiol. 1998;84(5):1540-50. PMID:9572797 
  64. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia: historical overview, changing incidence, and recent association with varicella. Pediatrics. 1995;96(3 Pt 1):428-33. PMID:7651773 
  65. A methodology to evaluate motion of the unstable spine during intubation techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18(14):2020-3. PMID:8272952 
  66. A new compound curved needle for intradermal suture closure. J Emerg Med. 1989;7(5):441-4. PMID:2691558 
  67. Emergency medicine magnifying loupes. J Emerg Med. 1989;7(4):321-7. PMID:2600388 
  68. Evaluation of cohesive and elastic support bandages for joint immobilization. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1989;10(3):258-62. PMID:2745502 
  69. Evaluation of automatic disposable rotating cartridge skin staplers. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1988;9(5):538-46. PMID:3192614 
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