Philip C. Spinella, M.D., FCCM  pspinella@wustl.edu

Director, Critical Care Translational Research Program
Researcher, Patient Oriented Research Unit
Critical Care MedicinePatient Oriented Research Unit

phone: (314) 454-2527

Clinical Interests

Dr. Philip C. Spinella is the Director of the Pediatric Critical Care Translational Research Program at St. Louis Children's Hospital and Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Spinella earned his Bacelor of Arts degree in Biology (1991) at Tufts University, and his Medical Degree (1995) at New York Medical College. Following residency in Pediatrics at Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu, HI, he served as Chief of Pediatric In-patient and Outpatient Services at Bayne-Jones Army Medical Center at Fort Polk, LA (1998-2000). Dr. Spinella then completed a fellowship in Pediatric Critical Care at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (2003). After fellowship he served as teh Assistant Chief of Pediatric Critical Care at Wilford Hall Medical Center in San Antonio (2003-2007). During this time he was deployed to Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom for one year (2004-2005). It was during this deployment that Dr. Spinella's interest in the efficacy and safety of blood products for the treatment of shock and coagulopathy developed. Since this experience he has developed a research program that focuses on understanding the mechanisms related to adverse events secondary to the transfusion of blood products and perfroming clinical trials to determine the efficacy and safety of blood products. He came to Washington University in 2010 to assume leadership of the Pediatric Critical Care Translational Research Program. Dr. Spinella served 15 years in the US Army and separated as a Lieutenant Colonel in 2007. He is a veteran of the Iraq War, where he received a Bronze Star and the Combat Medic Badge for providing care under fire. In collaboration with investigators at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, his groundbreaking work in the area of treatment of hemorrhagic shock received the US Army's Best Invention Award in 2008 for his role in the development of the concept of "damage control resuscitation". Dr. Spinella co-founded and is the co-Chair of the Trauma Hemostasis and Oxugenation Research (THOR) Network, which is an international multidisciplinary network of civilian and military providers ranging from first responders/medics to critical care physicians, as well as from basic scientists to clinical trialists. Since 2011, THOR has organized and sponsored a Remote Damage Control Resuscitation annual conference with civilian and military attendees encompassing 18 countries. The conference has led to national policty changes regarding the care of patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock in the pre-hospital phase of resuscitation in countries such as Israel, Australia, Canada, France, Norway, and the United Kingdom, as well as policy changes at multiple trauma centers in the US. Dr. Spinella is a consultant to the US Army Blood Research Program at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, and the Norwegian Navy Blood Research Program. He has organized a full day conference at the White House for the National Security Service after teh Boston Marathon bombing in response to the concern for an adequate blood supply for large terrorist attacks that cause a significant number of casualties with hemorrhagic shock. This responsibility was based on his experience consulting for the Commitee on Emergency Preparedness led by Homeland Security and the Public Health Service for the Northeast Region from 2006-2008. In addition, he has also briefed the US Department of Defense on advancements in the area of trauma resuscitation. In 2015, Dr. Spinella was appointed by the Institute of Medicine as a member on the Committee of Military Trauma Care's Learning Health System and its Translation to the Civilian Sector. Dr. Spinella is also a co-founder and Chair of the Pediatric Critical Care Blood Research Network (Blood Net). Blood Net is an international network of approximately 90 members from 4 countries with a mission to improve outcomes in critically ill children by supporting and performing research in transfusion medicine, hemostasis and blood management. Dr. Spinella is a well-established investigator who ahs been awarded approximately 20 million dollars in funding from the US Department of Defense and the National Institutes of Health. Currently he is a Principal Investigator of 2 randomized controlled trials. The ABC-PICU trial examines the effect of RBC storage age on outcomes in critically ill children. The TAMPITI trial examines the immunologic effect of tranexamic acid in patients with severe traumatic injuries.

Education

  • BS, Tufts University1991
  • MD, New York Medical College1995

Training

  • Pediatric Internship, Tripler Army Medical Center1995 - 1996
  • Pediatric Residency, Tripler Army Medical Center1996 - 1998
  • Pediatric Critical Care Fellowship, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia2000 - 2003

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Pediatrics 1998
  • Pediatric Critical Care 2004

Honors

  • Junior Alpha Omega Alpha1995
  • 1st Place Best, Critical Care Abstract Award, High Fidelity Medical Simulation as a method to assess retention of resuscitative skills, AAP National Conference2006
  • 2nd Place, Best Abstract, Blood product replacement effects survival in patients with massive transfusion at a combat support hospital. International Military Trauma Symposium. Koblenz, Germany2006
  • Faculty Teaching Award, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, TX2006
  • Trauma Specialty Award, SCCM 2008, Oral presentation of “Effect of blood products on mortality in combat casualties”2007
  • Trauma Specialty Award, SCCM 2009, Oral presentation of “Whole blood improves survival compared to component therapy in trauma patients”2008
  • US Army best invention award for development of hemostatic resuscitation concept for patients with traumatic injuries2008
  • Best Abstract Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2009. “A prospective randomized cross-over trial of repetitive simulation for pediatric critical illness”2009
  • Research Citation Finalist, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2010. Association between length of storage of red blood cell units and outcome of critically ill children in the TRIPICU study2009
  • Research Citation Finalist, Society of Critical Care Medicine Symposium 2010. Association between length of storage of transfused red blood cells and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in pediatric intensive care patients2009
  • Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching Acute Care, University of Connecticut Pediatric Residency Program2010
  • Presidential Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine2011
  • Presidential Citation Award, Society of Critical Care Medicine2012

Recent Publications view all (133)


  1. Prehospital hemostatic resuscitation to achieve zero preventable deaths after traumatic injury. Curr Opin Hematol. 2017. PMID:28832355 
  2. Controlling Phlebotomy Volume Diminishes PICU Transfusion: Implementation Processes and Impact. Pediatrics. 2017;140(2). PMID:28701427 
  3. The research agenda for trauma critical care. Intensive Care Med. 2017. PMID:28756471 
  4. The authors reply. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(5):501-502. PMCID:PMC5506827  PMID:28475543 
  5. Editors' Preface. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:28362684 
  6. 2016 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's scientific priorities in pediatric transfusion medicine. Transfusion. 2017. PMID:28369923 
  7. Outcomes Related to the Use of Frozen Plasma or Pooled Solvent/Detergent-Treated Plasma in Critically Ill Children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017. PMID:28350560 
  8. Immunologic effects of trauma and transfusion. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:28333832 
  9. Zero preventable deaths after traumatic injury: An achievable goal. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017. PMID:28333835 
  10. RBC Distribution Width: Biomarker for Red Cell Dysfunction and Critical Illness Outcome? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(2):134-142. PMCID:PMC5291765  PMID:27832023 
  11. Factors influencing plasma transfusion practices in paediatric intensive care units around the world. Vox Sang. 2017;112(2):140-149. PMID:28176380 
  12. New or Progressive Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Pediatric Severe Sepsis: A Sepsis Phenotype With Higher Morbidity and Mortality. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18(1):8-16. PMID:28060151 
  13. Tranexamic Acid Update in Trauma. Crit Care Clin. 2017;33(1):85-99. PMID:27894501 
  14. Performance of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score in critically ill children requiring plasma transfusions. Ann Intensive Care. 2016;6(1):98. PMCID:PMC5053948  PMID:27714707 
  15. Red blood cell storage age - what we know from clinical trials. Expert Rev Hematol. 2016;1-3. PMID:27686118 
  16. Transfusion-related immunomodulation: review of the literature and implications for pediatric critical illness. Transfusion. 2016. PMID:27696473 
  17. Whole blood: back to the future. Curr Opin Hematol. 2016. PMID:27607444 
  18. The effect of massive transfusion protocol implementation on pediatric trauma care. Transfusion. 2016. PMID:27572499 
  19. 2016 Military Supplement Tactical Study of Care Originating in the Prehospital Environment (TACSCOPE): Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on the Contemporary Battlefield. Shock. 2016. PMID:27405067 
  20. Adipose tissue location and contribution to postinjury hypercoagulability. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000001096  PMID:27120319 
  21. Dried plasma: state of the science and recent developments. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S128-39. doi:10.1111/trf.13580  PMID:27100749 
  22. A proposed field emergency donor panel questionnaire and triage tool. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S119-27. doi:10.1111/trf.13487  PMID:27100748 
  23. Whole blood for hemostatic resuscitation of major bleeding. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S190-202. doi:10.1111/trf.13491  PMID:27100756 
  24. RDCR Symposium fifth-year anniversary edition: global prehospital care rooted in a history of military innovation. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S107-9. doi:10.1111/trf.13606  PMID:27100745 
  25. "Blood failure" time to view blood as an organ: how oxygen debt contributes to blood failure and its implications for remote damage control resuscitation. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 2:S182-9. doi:10.1111/trf.13500  PMID:27100755 
  26. Recommendations for utilization of the paracorporeal lung assist device in neonates and young children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Transplant. 2016;20(2):256-70. doi:10.1111/petr.12673  PMID:26899454 
  27. Platelets regulate vascular endothelial stability: assessing the storage lesion and donor variability of apheresis platelets. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S65-75. doi:10.1111/trf.13532  PMID:27001364 
  28. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016;56 Suppl 1:S52-64. doi:10.1111/trf.13455  PMID:27001362 
  29. A survey of US and Canadian hospitals' paediatric massive transfusion protocol policies. Transfus Med. 2016. doi:10.1111/tme.12277  PMID:26833998 
  30. Lessons Learned for the Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock. US Army Med Dep J. 2016;(2-16):37-42. PMID:27215864 
  31. Storage Duration and Other Measures of Quality of Red Blood Cells for Transfusion. JAMA. 2015;314(23):2509-10. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.14714  PMID:26637803 
  32. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium. Transfusion. 2015;55(9):2282-90. PMCID:PMC4573332  PMID:26260861 
  33. What is the Big Deal about the BIG Score? J Pediatr. 2015;167(3):513-4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.039  PMID:26165443 
  34. All plasma products are not created equal: Characterizing differences between plasma products. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S18-25. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000629  PMID:26002258 
  35. Blood far forward: Time to get moving! J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S2-6. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000626  PMID:26002259 
  36. Massive transfusion policies at trauma centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S48-53. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000641  PMID:26002263 
  37. Fresh frozen plasma and spray-dried plasma mitigate pulmonary vascular permeability and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(6 Suppl 1):S7-S17. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000630  PMID:26002267 
  38. Red blood cell storage duration is not associated with clinical outcomes for acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease. Transfusion. 2015;55(11):2714-2721. doi:10.1111/trf.13176  PMID:26033266 
  39. Indications and Effects of Plasma Transfusions in Critically Ill Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191(12):1395-1402. doi:10.1164/rccm.201503-0450OC  PMID:25859890 
  40. Techniques to improve detection and analysis of extracellular vesicles using flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2015;87(11):1052-1063. doi:10.1002/cyto.a.22649  PMID:25847910 
  41. Isolated pediatric burn injury in Iraq and Afghanistan. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(2):e23-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000307  PMID:25560430 
  42. Incidence of Platelet Dysfunction by Thromboelastography-Platelet Mapping in Children Supported with ECMO: A Pilot Retrospective Study. Front Pediatr. 2015;3:116. doi:10.3389/fped.2015.00116  PMCID:PMC4702183  PMID:26779465 
  43. Clearly defining pediatric massive transfusion: cutting through the fog and friction with combat data. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(1):22-8; discussion 28-9. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000488  PMID:25539199 
  44. Red blood cell transfusion and immune function in critically ill children: a prospective observational study. Transfusion. 2014;55(4):766-774. doi:10.1111/trf.12896  PMID:25355535 
  45. Management of anticoagulation and hemostasis for pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clin Lab Med. 2014;34(3):655-73. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2014.06.014  PMID:25168949 
  46. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:1-2. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000059  PMID:24089006 
  47. Low titer group O whole blood in emergency situations. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:70-5. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000150  PMID:24569505 
  48. Refrigerated platelets for the treatment of acute bleeding: a review of the literature and reexamination of current standards. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:51-3. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000078  PMID:24662779 
  49. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:3-12. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000140  PMID:24430539 
  50. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:30-4. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000089  PMID:24296434 
  51. A multinational study of thromboprophylaxis practice in critically ill children. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(5):1232-40. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000147  PMID:24351371 
  52. Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion. Shock. 2014;41 Suppl 1:76-83. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000114  PMID:24365879 
  53. Impact of the age of transfused red blood cells in the trauma population: a feasibility study. Injury. 2014;45(3):605-11. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2013.07.016  PMID:24139171 
  54. Fresh whole blood transfusion for a combat casualty in austere combat environment. J Spec Oper Med. 2014;14(1):9-12. PMID:24604433 
  55. Freeze-dried plasma at the point of injury: from concept to doctrine. Shock. 2013;40(6):444-50. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000047  PMID:24089000 
  56. Early management of pediatric vascular injuries through humanitarian surgical care during U.S. military operations. J Vasc Surg. 2013;58(3):695-700. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2013.02.034  PMID:23683379 
  57. Response to letters regarding article, “Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests". Circulation. 2013;128(7):e102-3. PMID:24137625 
  58. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries. Crit Care. 2013;17(4):R134. doi:10.1186/cc12813  PMID:23844754 
  59. Donor performance of combat readiness skills of special forces soldiers are maintained immediately after whole blood donation: a study to support the development of a prehospital fresh whole blood transfusion program. Transfusion. 2013;53(3):526-30. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03767.x  PMID:22738468 
  60. The blind physicians and the elephant on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(2):231-3. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31827451ea  PMID:23388574 
  61. Incidence and acute complications of asymptomatic central venous catheter-related deep venous thrombosis in critically ill children. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):387-91. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.06.059  PMCID:PMC3575007  PMID:22883418 
  62. Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. Circulation. 2013;127(4):442-51. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.125625  PMID:23339874 
  63. Blood Far Forward--a whole blood research and training program for austere environments. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:124S-130S. doi:10.1111/trf.12046  PMID:23301964 
  64. Remote damage control resuscitation and the Solstrand Conference: defining the need, the language, and a way forward. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:9S-16S. doi:10.1111/trf.12030  PMID:23301981 
  65. Fresh whole blood use by forward surgical teams in Afghanistan is associated with improved survival compared to component therapy without platelets. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:107S-113S. doi:10.1111/trf.12044  PMID:23301962 
  66. Spray-dried plasma and fresh frozen plasma modulate permeability and inflammation in vitro in vascular endothelial cells. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:80S-90S. doi:10.1111/trf.12040  PMID:23301978 
  67. The Solstrand remote damage control resuscitation symposium. Transfusion. 2013;53 Suppl 1:6S-8S. doi:10.1111/trf.12029  PMID:23301976 
  68. [Epidemiology, risk stratification and outcome of severe pediatric trauma]. Klin Padiatr. 2013;225(1):34-40. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1329945  PMID:23203384 
  69. The trauma patient in hemorrhagic shock: how is the C-priority addressed between emergency and ICU admission? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012;20:78. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-20-78  PMCID:PMC3546869  PMID:23199212 
  70. Ten years of military pediatric care in Afghanistan and Iraq. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S509-13. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318275477c  PMID:23192078 
  71. Ten-year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: increased plasma and platelet use correlates with improved survival. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6 Suppl 5):S445-52. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182754796  PMID:23192068 
  72. The acute coagulopathy of trauma: mechanisms and tools for risk stratification. Shock. 2012;38(5):450-8. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31826dbd23  PMID:23042192 
  73. Fluid balance in critically ill children with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(10):2883-9. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825bc54d  PMCID:PMC3455114  PMID:22824936 
  74. Fresh whole blood use for hemorrhagic shock: preserving benefit while avoiding complications. Anesth Analg. 2012;115(4):751-8. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e318261f40e  PMID:22763908 
  75. Timing and location of blood product transfusion and outcomes in massively transfused combat casualties. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(2 Suppl 1):S89-94. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318260625a  PMID:22847102 
  76. Effect of processing and storage on red blood cell function in vivo. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36(4):248-59. doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2012.04.005  PMCID:PMC3404625  PMID:22818545 
  77. Glasgow Coma Scale as a predictor for hemocoagulative disorders after blunt pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13(4):455-60. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31823893c5  PMID:22422166 
  78. Constant challenges and evolution of US military transfusion medicine and blood operations in combat. Transfusion. 2012;52(5):1146-53. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03594.x  PMID:22575063 
  79. Coagulopathy and shock on admission is associated with mortality for children with traumatic injuries at combat support hospitals. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13(3):273-7. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31822f1727  PMID:21926654 
  80. Predictive Models and Algorithms for the Need of Transfusion Including Massive Transfusion in Severely Injured Patients. Transfus Med Hemother. 2012;39(2):85-97. doi:000337243  PMCID:PMC3364090  PMID:22670126 
  81. Simulation training for surgical residents in pediatric trauma scenarios. Conn Med. 2012;76(3):159-62. PMID:22666976 
  82. Symposium on fresh whole blood for severe hemorrhagic shock: from in-hospital to far forward resuscitations. Transfus Apher Sci. 2012;46(1):113-7. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2012.01.002  PMID:22300839 
  83. Impact of the duration of platelet storage in critically ill trauma patients. J Trauma. 2011;71(6):1766-73; discussion 1773-4. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31823bdbf9  PMID:22182887 
  84. Prevention and treatment of coagulopathy in patients receiving massive transfusions. Vox Sang. 2011;101(2):154-74. doi:10.1111/j.1423-0410.2011.01472.x  PMID:21749403 
  85. The association of blood component use ratios with the survival of massively transfused trauma patients with and without severe brain injury. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 3):S343-52. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318227ef2d  PMID:21814102 
  86. Does the storage duration of blood products affect outcomes in critically ill patients? Transfusion. 2011;51(8):1644-50. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03245.x  PMID:21831180 
  87. A predictive model for mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 3):S370-4. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318227f18f  PMID:21814106 
  88. Increased platelet:RBC ratios are associated with improved survival after massive transfusion. J Trauma. 2011;71(2 Suppl 3):S318-28. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e318227edbb  PMID:21814099 
  89. Severity of head injury is associated with increased risk of coagulopathy in combat casualties. J Trauma. 2011;71(1 Suppl):S78-81. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182218cd8  PMID:21795882 
  90. The effect of FFP:RBC ratio on morbidity and mortality in trauma patients based on transfusion prediction score. Vox Sang. 2011;101(1):44-54. doi:10.1111/j.1423-0410.2011.01466.x  PMCID:PMC3155292  PMID:21438884 
  91. Pediatric trauma BIG score: predicting mortality in children after military and civilian trauma. Pediatrics. 2011;127(4):e892-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2439  PMID:21422095 
  92. Properties of stored red blood cells: understanding immune and vascular reactivity. Transfusion. 2011;51(4):894-900. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03103.x  PMCID:PMC3081134  PMID:21496052 
  93. Comparison of platelet transfusion as fresh whole blood versus apheresis platelets for massively transfused combat trauma patients (CME). Transfusion. 2011;51(2):242-52. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02818.x  PMID:20796254 
  94. Balanced massive transfusion ratios in multiple injury patients with traumatic brain injury. Crit Care. 2011;15(1):R68. doi:10.1186/cc10048  PMCID:PMC3222001  PMID:21342499 
  95. Red blood cell transfusion and increased length of storage are not associated with deep vein thrombosis in medical and surgical critically ill patients: a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2011;15(6):R263. doi:10.1186/cc10526  PMCID:PMC3388665  PMID:22044745 
  96. Survey of transfusion policies at US and Canadian children's hospitals in 2008 and 2009. Transfusion. 2010;50(11):2328-35. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02708.x  PMID:20529008 
  97. Care of pediatric neurosurgical patients in Iraq in 2007: clinical and ethical experience of a field hospital. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6(3):250-6. doi:10.3171/2010.6.PEDS1031  PMID:20809709 
  98. Association between length of storage of transfused red blood cells and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in pediatric intensive care patients. Transfusion. 2010;50(9):1902-13. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02661.x  PMID:20456697 
  99. Use of recombinant factor VIIa in US military casualties for a five-year period. J Trauma. 2010;69(2):353-9. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e49059  PMID:20699744 
  100. Use of a massive transfusion protocol with hemostatic resuscitation for severe intraoperative bleeding in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45(7):1530-3. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.03.023  PMID:20638538 
  101. Association of shock, coagulopathy, and initial vital signs with massive transfusion in combat casualties. J Trauma. 2010;69 Suppl 1:S26-32. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e423f4  PMID:20622616 
  102. Emergent endotracheal intubations in children: be careful if it's late when you intubate. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11(3):343-8. PMID:20464775 
  103. Optimal use of blood in trauma patients. Biologicals. 2010;38(1):72-7. doi:10.1016/j.biologicals.2009.10.007  PMCID:PMC3126656  PMID:20074980 
  104. Association between length of storage of red blood cell units and outcome of critically ill children: a prospective observational study. Crit Care. 2010;14(2):R57. doi:10.1186/cc8953  PMCID:PMC2887178  PMID:20377853 
  105. Resuscitation and transfusion principles for traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Blood Rev. 2009;23(6):231-40. doi:10.1016/j.blre.2009.07.003  PMCID:PMC3159517  PMID:19695750 
  106. The U.S. military wartime pediatric trauma mission: how surgeons and pediatricians are adapting the system to address the need. Mil Med. 2009;174(9):887-91. PMID:19780362 
  107. An evaluation of the impact of apheresis platelets used in the setting of massively transfused trauma patients. J Trauma. 2009;66(4 Suppl):S77-84; discussion S84-5. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31819d8936  PMID:19359974 
  108. Warm fresh whole blood is independently associated with improved survival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(4 Suppl):S69-76. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31819d85fb  PMCID:PMC3126655  PMID:19359973 
  109. Predicting resource needs for multiple and mass casualty events in combat: lessons learned from combat support hospital experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom. J Trauma. 2009;66(4 Suppl):S129-37. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31819d85e7  PMID:19359956 
  110. Thromboelastography to direct the administration of recombinant activated factor VII in a child with traumatic injury requiring massive transfusion. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(2):e22-6. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31819bb939  PMID:19265363 
  111. Duration of red blood cell storage is associated with increased incidence of deep vein thrombosis and in hospital mortality in patients with traumatic injuries. Crit Care. 2009;13(5):R151. doi:10.1186/cc8050  PMCID:PMC2784373  PMID:19772604 
  112. Increased mortality rates of young children with traumatic injuries at a US army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, 2004. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):e959-66. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1244  PMID:18977963 
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