Schwartz, Alan L., Ph.D., M.D.

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Professor of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology
Professor of Developmental Biology
Hematology and Oncology

phone: (314) 454-6018


  • BA, Case Western Reserve University1970
  • PhD, Case Western Reserve University1974
  • MD, Case Western Reserve University1976


  • Research Fellow (Prof. N.C.R. Raina), University of Helsinki1972 - 1973
  • NIH Postdoctoral Fellow (Prof. T.W. Rall), Case Western Reserve University1974 - 1974
  • Fellow of the Medical Research Council of New Zealand (Sir Prof. G.C. Liggins), University of Auckland, National Women's Hospital1975 - 1976
  • Residency (Prof. M.E. Avery) , Children's Hospital Medical Center1976 - 1978
  • Clinical Fellow in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School1977 - 1978
  • Fellow in Hematology/Oncology (Prof. D.G. Nathan), Children's Hospital Medical Center and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute1978 - 1979

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1977 - PresMA, Medical License
  • 1981 - PresDiplomate of the American Board of Pediatrics
  • 1986 - PresMO, Medical License

Honors and Awards

  • University Book Prize in Biology, Case Western Reserve University1970
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine1975
  • John L. Caughey, M.D. Award for Clinical Investigation, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine1975
  • Bronze Medal of the Royal Humane Society of New Zealand1976
  • Upjohn Award in Clinical Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine1976
  • George von L. Meyer Award, Children's Hospital Medical Center1977
  • Sidney Farber House Staff Prize, Children's Hospital Medical Center1978
  • David Abraham Fellowship in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology1979
  • Bushrod H. Campbell and Adah F. Hall Medical Foundation Fellow1980 - 1982
  • Outstanding Young Investigator, Boston Blood Club1981
  • John A. and George Hartford Foundation Fellow1982 - 1985
  • Society for Pediatric Research, Young Investigator Award1983
  • Established Investigator, American Heart Association1985 - 1990
  • Alumni Endowed Professor of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine1987 - 1998
  • Gold Metal Award, Hospital Association of Greater St. Louis1988
  • Teacher of the Year, Washington University School of Medicine1988
  • Basil O'Connor Award, March of Dimes1990 - 1995
  • Outstanding Clinical Teacher 1990-1991, St. Louis Children's Hospital1991
  • Distinguished Visiting Professor, University of Utrecht School of Medicine, Utrecht, The Netherlands1993 - 1998
  • E. Mead Johnson Award1993
  • Distinguished Service Teaching Award, Washington University School of Medicine1993
  • Who's Who in Midwest1994 - 2002
  • Distinguished Service Teaching Award, Washington University School of Medicine1994
  • Harriet B. Spoehrer Professor of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine1995 - 2016
  • Who's Who in American Education1995 - Pres
  • United States Patent 5,474,766 for Methods and Compositions for Inhibition of Hepatic Clearance of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator, Docket Number C00108/059407 (issued December 12)1995
  • Who's Who in America1996 - 2010
  • Fellows Award, Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation1996
  • United States Patent 5,650,391 for Methods and Compositions for Inhibition of Hepatic Clearance of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (issued July 22)1997
  • Elected to National Academy of Medicine (Formally Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.)1999 - Pres
  • Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare2001 - Pres
  • Best Doctors in America2003 - 2010
  • American Men and Women of Science2004
  • Who's Who Among America's Teachers2004 - Pres
  • Distinguished Faculty Award, Washington University School of Medicine2006
  • Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science2007 - Pres
  • Best Doctors in America2007 - 2010
  • Fellows Award, Academy of Science – St. Louis2010
  • Doctor Medicinae et Chirurgiae Honoris Causa, University of Helsinki, Finland (Honorary Degree)2010
  • Distinguished Alumni Award, Case Western Reserve University2017

Recent Publications view all (238)

Publication Co-Authors

  1. Analysis of Electrophysiological Activation of the Uterus During Human Labor Contractions. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(6):e2214707. PMID:35653158 
  2. RNA-Seq identifies genes whose proteins are upregulated during syncytia development in murine C2C12 myoblasts and human BeWo trophoblasts. Physiol Rep. 2021;9(1):e14671. PMCID:PMC7786548  PMID:33403800 
  3. Addressing Gaps in Pediatric Scientist Development: The Department Chair View of 2 AMSPDC-Sponsored Programs. J Pediatr. 2020;222:7-12.e4. PMID:32586535 
  4. Addressing Gaps in Pediatric Scientist Development: The Department Chair View of Two AMPSDC-Sponsored Programs The Journal of Pediatrics. 2020;In press. 
  5. Electromyometrial imaging dataset of electromyograms and isochrone maps under deformation/electrical noise contaminations. Data Brief. 2020;28:105078. PMCID:PMC6956746  PMID:31956675 
  6. Accuracy of electromyometrial imaging of uterine contractions in clinical environment. Comput Biol Med. 2019;116:103543. PMID:31786490 
  7. Noninvasive high-resolution electromyometrial imaging of uterine contractions in a translational sheep model. Sci Transl Med. 2019;11(483). PMID:30867320 
  8. RNA-Seq identifies genes whose proteins are transformative in the differentiation of cytotrophoblast to syncytiotrophoblast, in human primary villous and BeWo trophoblasts. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):5142. PMID:29572450 
  9. Physician-Scientist Career Awards and a Dilemma: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development K Awards-Individual, Institutional, or National? JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(3):218-219. PMID:29340560 
  10. RNF4-Dependent Oncogene Activation by Protein Stabilization. Cell Rep. 2016;16(12):3388-400. PMID:27653698 
  11. Isoform-specific SCF(Fbw7) ubiquitination mediates differential regulation of PGC-1α. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230(4):842-52. doi:10.1002/jcp.24812  PMCID:PMC4596538  PMID:25204433 
  12. American Pediatric Society 2014 presidential address: the thrill of discovery (and other foundations of biomedical research). Pediatr Res. 2014;76(3):316-20. doi:10.1038/pr.2014.81  PMID:24937547 
  13. Commentary: physician-scientist attrition: stemming the tide through national networks for training and development. Acad Med. 2011;86(9):1071-2. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318224fd75  PMID:21865903 
  14. The Future of Children's Health in the Genomic Era. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2011;2(3):e0053. doi:10.5041/RMMJ.10053  PMCID:PMC3678796  PMID:23908811 
  15. Ubiquitin proteasome-dependent degradation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1{alpha} via the N-terminal pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(51):40192-200. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.131615  PMCID:PMC3001001  PMID:20713359 
  16. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by inducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Cancer Res. 2009;69(3):879-86. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3379  PMCID:PMC2633434  PMID:19176371 
  17. Targeting proteins for destruction by the ubiquitin system: implications for human pathobiology. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;49:73-96. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.051208.165340  PMID:18834306 
  18. The N-terminal domain of MyoD is necessary and sufficient for its nuclear localization-dependent degradation by the ubiquitin system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(41):15690-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0808373105  PMCID:PMC2560994  PMID:18836078 
  19. In vivo interactions of MyoD, Id1, and E2A proteins determined by acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer. FASEB J. 2008;22(6):1694-701. doi:10.1096/fj.07-095000  PMID:18198216 
  20. Glucocorticoids differentially regulate degradation of MyoD and Id1 by N-terminal ubiquitination to promote muscle protein catabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(9):3339-44. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800165105  PMCID:PMC2265166  PMID:18296633 
  21. Slow endocytosis of the LDL receptor-related protein 1B: implications for a novel cytoplasmic tail conformation. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313(15):3298-307. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.05.026  PMCID:PMC2002472  PMID:17658514 
  22. E2A protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is stage-dependent during muscle differentiation. Oncogene. 2007;26(3):441-8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209793  PMID:16909127 
  23. E12 and E47 modulate cellular localization and proteasome-mediated degradation of MyoD and Id1. Oncogene. 2005;24(42):6376-84. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208789  PMID:16007194 
  24. Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation, intracellular localization, and protein synthesis of MyoD and Id1 during muscle differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(28):26448-56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M500373200  PMID:15888449 
  25. Independent and cooperative roles of N-glycans and molecular chaperones in the folding and disulfide bond formation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein. Biochemistry. 2005;44(15):5794-803. doi:10.1021/bi047652a  PMID:15823038 
  26. LRP6 expression promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by altering beta-catenin subcellular distribution. Oncogene. 2004;23(56):9129-35. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208123  PMID:15516984 
  27. The ubiquitin system: pathogenesis of human diseases and drug targeting. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1695(1-3):3-17. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.09.018  PMID:15571805 
  28. The tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) and the human papillomavirus oncoprotein-58 E7 are naturally occurring lysine-less proteins that are degraded by the ubiquitin system. Direct evidence for ubiquitination at the N-terminal residue. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(40):41414-21. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407201200  PMID:15254040 
  29. Ubiquitin-Proteasome-mediated degradation of Id1 is modulated by MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(31):32614-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M403794200  PMID:15163661 
  30. Degradation of the LDL receptor class 2 mutants is mediated by a proteasome-dependent pathway. J Lipid Res. 2004;45(6):1084-91. doi:10.1194/jlr.M300482-JLR200  PMID:14993243 
  31. Degradation of the Id2 developmental regulator: targeting via N-terminal ubiquitination. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314(2):505-12. PMID:14733935 
  32. Determinants of nuclear and cytoplasmic ubiquitin-mediated degradation of MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(3):1817-23. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208815200  PMID:12397066 
  33. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1B impairs urokinase receptor regeneration on the cell surface and inhibits cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(44):42366-71. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207705200  PMID:12194987 
  34. Cellular catabolism of lipid poor apolipoprotein E via cell surface LDL receptor-related protein. J Biochem. 2002;132(5):743-9. PMID:12417024 
  35. Proteasome regulates the delivery of LDL receptor-related protein into the degradation pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13(9):3325-35. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-03-0152  PMCID:PMC124162  PMID:12221136 
  36. Receptor-associated protein facilitates proper folding and maturation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and its class 2 mutants. Biochemistry. 2002;41(15):4921-8. PMID:11939787 
  37. Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular proteins in health and disease. Hepatology. 2002;35(1):3-6. doi:10.1053/jhep.2002.30316  PMID:11786953 
  38. The putative tumor suppressor LRP1B, a novel member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, exhibits both overlapping and distinct properties with the LDL receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(31):28889-96. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102727200  PMID:11384978 
  39. The nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(25):22468-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009388200  PMID:11309375 
  40. Exercise reduces daily fatigue in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(5):718-23. PMID:11323538 
  41. Dissection of receptor folding and ligand-binding property with functional minireceptors of LDL receptor-related protein. J Cell Sci. 2001;114(Pt 5):899-908. PMID:11181173 
  42. Mechanisms of ubiquitin-mediated, limited processing of the NF-kappaB1 precursor protein p105. Biochimie. 2001;83(3-4):341-9. PMID:11295495 
  43. Degradation of the E7 human papillomavirus oncoprotein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system: targeting via ubiquitination of the N-terminal residue. Oncogene. 2000;19(51):5944-50. PMID:11127826 
  44. SCF(beta)(-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase-mediated processing of NF-kappaB p105 requires phosphorylation of its C-terminus by IkappaB kinase. EMBO J. 2000;19(11):2580-91. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.11.2580  PMCID:PMC212749  PMID:10835356 
  45. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis: biological regulation via destruction. Bioessays. 2000;22(5):442-51. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(200005)22:5<442::AID-BIES6>3.0.CO;2-Q  PMID:10797484 
  46. Recombinant full-length tissue factor pathway inhibitor fails to bind to the cell surface: implications for catabolism in vitro and in vivo. Blood. 2000;95(6):1973-8. PMID:10706863 
  47. The ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway: mode of action and clinical implications. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2000;34:40-51. PMID:10762014 
  48. The carboxyl-terminal domain of receptor-associated protein facilitates proper folding and trafficking of the very low density lipoprotein receptor by interaction with the three amino-terminal ligand-binding repeats of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274(36):25877-82. PMID:10464330 
  49. Structural motifs involved in ubiquitin-mediated processing of the NF-kappaB precursor p105: roles of the glycine-rich region and a downstream ubiquitination domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19(5):3664-73. PMCID:PMC84174  PMID:10207090 
  50. Identification of a novel ubiquitin conjugation motif, required for ligand-induced internalization of the growth hormone receptor. EMBO J. 1999;18(1):28-36. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.1.28  PMCID:PMC1171099  PMID:9878047 
  51. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and pathogenesis of human diseases. Annu Rev Med. 1999;50:57-74. doi:10.1146/  PMID:10073263 
  52. Ca2+ and receptor-associated protein are independently required for proper folding and disulfide bond formation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(35):22374-81. PMID:9712858 
  53. Basal and human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein-induced degradation of Myc proteins by the ubiquitin pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(14):8058-63. PMCID:PMC20928  PMID:9653139 
  54. RAP, a novel type of ER chaperone. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8(7):272-6. PMID:9714598 
  55. Di-leucine-mediated internalization of ligand by a truncated growth hormone receptor is independent of the ubiquitin conjugation system. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(26):16426-33. PMID:9632708 
  56. Nerve growth factor induces rapid increases in functional cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(21):13359-65. PMID:9582384 
  57. The changing health care environment: implications for residency training. Pediatrics. 1998;101(4 Pt 2):795-803; discussion 803-4. PMID:9544185 
  58. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: the complexity and myriad functions of proteins death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(6):2727-30. PMCID:PMC34259  PMID:9501156 
  59. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) mediates clearance of coagulation factor Xa in vivo. Blood. 1998;91(2):555-60. PMID:9427709 
  60. Alpha2-macroglobulin complexes with and mediates the endocytosis of beta-amyloid peptide via cell surface low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Neurochem. 1997;69(5):1904-11. PMID:9349534 
  61. Glypican-3 is a binding protein on the HepG2 cell surface for tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Biochem J. 1997;327 ( Pt 2):577-83. PMCID:PMC1218832  PMID:9359432 
  62. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1997;7(7):234-9. doi:10.1016/S1050-1738(97)00083-2  PMID:21235890 
  63. Linkage of the ubiquitin-conjugating system and the endocytic pathway in ligand-induced internalization of the growth hormone receptor. EMBO J. 1997;16(16):4851-8. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.16.4851  PMCID:PMC1170120  PMID:9305627 
  64. Role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the uptake and degradation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-coagulation factor Xa complexes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(27):16838-44. PMID:9201990 
  65. Adenovirus mediated gene transfer into rat lung grafts at the time of harvest. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997;11(6):1023-8; discussion 1029. PMID:9237582 
  66. Identification of a region within the ubiquitin-activating enzyme required for nuclear targeting and phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(16):10895-903. PMID:9099746 
  67. Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain protein substrates in vitro requires the molecular chaperone Hsc70. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(14):9002-10. PMID:9083024 
  68. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, a multifunctional apolipoprotein E receptor, modulates hippocampal neurite development. J Neurochem. 1997;68(2):587-95. PMID:9003044 
  69. Growth hormone-induced signal tranduction depends on an intact ubiquitin system. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(1):40-3. PMID:8995223 
  70. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein can function independently from heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(42):25873-9. PMID:8824219 
  71. The ubiquitin conjugation system is required for ligand-induced endocytosis and degradation of the growth hormone receptor. EMBO J. 1996;15(15):3806-12. PMCID:PMC452061  PMID:8670885 
  72. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 is phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus in a cell cycle-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(26):15608-14. PMID:8663123 
  73. The spectrum of brain MR abnormalities in sickle-cell disease: a report from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;17(5):965-72. PMID:8733975 
  74. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of coagulation factor Xa requires cell surface-bound tissue factor pathway inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(16):9497-502. PMID:8621621 
  75. The 39-kDa protein regulates LRP activity in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 1996;69(2):156-65. PMID:8907616 
  76. Isolation, characterization, and partial purification of a novel ubiquitin-protein ligase, E3. Targeting of protein substrates via multiple and distinct recognition signals and conjugating enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(1):302-10. PMID:8550577 
  77. Protein synthesis elongation factor EF-1 alpha is an isopeptidase essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain proteolytic substrates. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;389:209-19. PMID:8861013 
  78. Receptor cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis. Pediatr Res. 1995;38(6):835-43. doi:10.1203/00006450-199512000-00003  PMID:8618782 
  79. Degradation of the proto-oncogene product c-Fos by the ubiquitin proteolytic system in vivo and in vitro: identification and characterization of the conjugating enzymes. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15(12):7106-16. PMCID:PMC230966  PMID:8524278 
  80. Two receptor systems are involved in the plasma clearance of tissue factor pathway inhibitor in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(42):24800-4. PMID:7559599 
  81. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates apolipoprotein E-dependent neurite outgrowth in a central nervous system-derived neuronal cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92(21):9480-4. PMCID:PMC40825  PMID:7568158 
  82. Analysis of ligand binding to the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Evidence that lipoprotein lipase and the carboxyl-terminal domain of the receptor-associated protein bind to the same site. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(40):23713-9. PMID:7559542 
  83. Ubiquitin-mediated processing of NF-kappa B transcriptional activator precursor p105. Reconstitution of a cell-free system and identification of the ubiquitin-carrier protein, E2, and a novel ubiquitin-protein ligase, E3, involved in conjugation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(37):21707-14. PMID:7665588 
  84. Binding and endocytosis of 39 kDa protein by MDBK cells. J Cell Physiol. 1995;164(2):441-7. doi:10.1002/jcp.1041640225  PMID:7542665 
  85. Two receptor systems are involved in the plasma clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1995;96(2):1164-8. doi:10.1172/JCI118105  PMCID:PMC185308  PMID:7635954 
  86. 39 kDa receptor-associated protein is an ER resident protein and molecular chaperone for LDL receptor-related protein. EMBO J. 1995;14(10):2269-80. PMCID:PMC398334  PMID:7774585 
  87. The carboxy terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor is required for interacting with hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1995;95(4):1773-81. doi:10.1172/JCI117855  PMCID:PMC295702  PMID:7706485 
  88. Sites within the 39-kDa protein important for regulating ligand binding to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Biochemistry. 1995;34(10):3404-15. PMID:7533537 
  89. Human ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1. Indication of potential nuclear and cytoplasmic subpopulations using epitope-tagged cDNA constructs. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(52):33171-8. PMID:7528747 
  90. Rescue of the complex temperature-sensitive phenotype of Chinese hamster ovary E36ts20 cells by expression of the human ubiquitin-activating enzyme cDNA. Biochem J. 1994;304 ( Pt 3):1015-20. PMCID:PMC1137433  PMID:7818464 
  91. Subcellular localization and endocytic function of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in human glioblastoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(47):29874-82. PMID:7961982 
  92. LRP and the receptor-mediated endocytosis of plasminogen activators. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;737:70-87. PMID:7944155 
  93. Identification of domains on the 39-kDa protein that inhibit the binding of ligands to the low density lipoprotein receptor--related protein. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;737:514-7. PMID:7524434 
  94. Protein synthesis elongation factor EF-1 alpha is essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain N alpha-acetylated proteins and may be substituted for by the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91(16):7648-52. PMCID:PMC44459  PMID:8052636 
  95. Expression and function of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) in mammalian central neurons. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(28):18521-8. PMID:7518435 
  96. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates the cellular degradation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91(14):6664-8. PMCID:PMC44263  PMID:7517557 
  97. Nuclear localization of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, is cell-cycle-dependent. Biochem J. 1994;300 ( Pt 3):701-8. PMCID:PMC1138223  PMID:8010951 
  98. Cellular receptors for the plasminogen activators. Blood. 1994;83(12):3427-36. PMID:8204869 
  99. Purification and characterization of a novel species of ubiquitin-carrier protein, E2, that is involved in degradation of non-"N-end rule" protein substrates. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(13):9574-81. PMID:8144544 
  100. Expression of functional growth hormone receptor in a mouse L cell line infected with recombinant vaccinia virus. Exp Cell Res. 1994;211(2):353-9. doi:10.1006/excr.1994.1098  PMID:8143783 
  101. Quantitative cell biology. Science. 1994;263(5154):1782. doi:10.1126/science.263.5154.1782  PMID:17795389 
  102. Binding analysis of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal regions of the 39-kDa protein to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(5):3325-30. PMID:7508911 
  103. The ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway: mechanisms of recognition of the proteolytic substrate and involvement in the degradation of native cellular proteins. FASEB J. 1994;8(2):182-91. PMID:8119489 
  104. Interaction of a 39 kDa protein with the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP) on rat hepatoma cells. Biochem J. 1993;296 ( Pt 3):867-75. PMCID:PMC1137774  PMID:8280086 
  105. Identification of domains on the 39-kDa protein that inhibit the binding of ligands to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(29):22046-54. PMID:7691821 
  106. 39-kD protein inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator clearance in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1993;92(2):937-44. doi:10.1172/JCI116669  PMCID:PMC294933  PMID:8349826 
  107. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of tissue-type plasminogen activator by low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(17):13002-9. PMID:8389767 
  108. Immunofluorescent localization of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, to the nucleus and cytoskeleton. Am J Physiol. 1993;264(1 Pt 1):C93-102. PMID:8430776 
  109. Endocytosis and lysosomal delivery of tissue plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 complexes in Hep G2 cells. Blood. 1992;80(11):2746-54. PMID:1333299 
  110. Ubiquitin-mediated protein modification and degradation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992;7(5):463-8. doi:10.1165/ajrcmb/7.5.463  PMID:1329865 
  111. Alterations in the protein composition of maturing phagosomes. J Clin Invest. 1992;90(5):1978-83. doi:10.1172/JCI116077  PMCID:PMC443261  PMID:1430221 
  112. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor is an hepatic receptor for tissue-type plasminogen activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(16):7427-31. PMCID:PMC49723  PMID:1502154 
  113. Identification and partial characterization by chemical cross-linking of a binding protein for tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) on rat hepatoma cells. A plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1-independent t-PA receptor. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(22):15595-602. PMID:1322401 
  114. Ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, is associated with maturation of autophagic vacuoles. J Cell Biol. 1992;118(2):301-8. PMCID:PMC2290057  PMID:1321157 
  115. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 in HepG2 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(12):5542-6. PMCID:PMC49328  PMID:1376922 
  116. tsBN75 and tsBN423, temperature-sensitive x-linked mutants of the BHK21 cell line, can be complemented by the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;184(2):1015-21. PMID:1575720 
  117. Stress-induced alterations in autophagic pathway: relationship to ubiquitin system. Am J Physiol. 1992;262(4 Pt 1):C1031-8. PMID:1314483 
  118. Transport of phagosomal components to an endosomal compartment. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(1):126-32. PMID:1730578 
  119. Assays for phagosome-endosome fusion and phagosome protein recycling. Methods Enzymol. 1992;219:21-31. PMID:1487994 
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