Carol Kao

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Assistant Professor, Infectious Diseases

phone: (314) 454-6050


  • BS, Ohio State University2008
  • MD, Ohio State University2012


  • Residency, General Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York - Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Nothwell2012 - 2015
  • Fellow, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital at Montefiore/Albert Einstein College of Medicine2015 - 2018
  • Health Services Research Core Curriculum, Emory University2019 - 2019

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 2015General Pediatrics Board Certification
  • 2019Pediatric Infectious Diseases Board Certification
  • 2020Missouri Medical License

Honors and Awards

  • National Merit Scholarship recipient2005
  • Society of Infectious Disease Travel Grant recipient2014
  • Infectious Disease Society of America, Fellow Travel Grant Recipient2017
  • Infectious Disease Society of NY Fellow Basic Science Abstract Award2017
  • NIAID/IDSA Research Careers Meeting, National Institute of Health2017
  • Children’s Hospital at Montefiore Pediatric Research Day, 1st place2018
  • Montefiore Young Investigator’s Symposium, 2nd place overall2018
  • Nominated faculty for Emory School of Medicine Doctor’s Day2020
  • The Congenital and Perinatal Infections Consortium (CPIC) Scholars Program2022

Recent Publications view all (27)

Publication Co-Authors

  1. Evaluation of mRNA-1273 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 6 to 11 Years of Age. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(21):2011-2023. PMID:35544369 
  2. Serologic and Cytokine Signatures in Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome and Coronavirus Disease 2019. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022;9(3):ofac070. PMCID:PMC8883592  PMID:35237703 
  3. Management and Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Children. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2022;36(1):73-100. PMID:35168715 
  4. Distinguishing Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children From COVID-19, Kawasaki Disease and Toxic Shock Syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2022. PMID:35093995 
  5. Intent to Vaccinate SARS-CoV-2 Infected Children in US Households: A Survey. Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(9). PMID:34579286 
  6. Durability of mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Science. 2021;373(6561):1372-1377. PMID:34385356 
  7. A Retrospective Test-Negative Case-Control Study to Evaluate Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing Hospitalizations in Children. Clin Infect Dis. 2021. PMID:34410341 
  8. Antibody Persistence through 6 Months after the Second Dose of mRNA-1273 Vaccine for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(23):2259-2261. PMID:33822494 
  9. Durability of Responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(1):80-82. PMCID:PMC7727324  PMID:33270381 
  10. Multifocal Osteomyelitis in a Child Presenting With a Mediastinal Mass. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020;59(13):1199-1201. PMID:32666811 
  11. Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2020. PMID:32991794 
  12. Effect of Concomitant Antibiotic and Vaccine Administration on Serologic Responses to Rotavirus Vaccine. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(4):479-482. PMID:31237948 
  13. Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Serology in Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). Pediatrics. 2020. PMID:32879033 
  14. A Pediatric Infectious Disease Perspective of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in Children. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020. PMID:32840614 
  15. Burden of illness in households with SARS-CoV-2 infected children. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020. PMCID:PMC7454727  PMID:32780809 
  16. Influenza vaccine effectiveness and disease burden in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: 2012-2017. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020;67(8):e28358. PMID:32469138 
  17. The Role of Maternal Vaccination on Healthcare Visits for Acute Respiratory Infections in HIV-Exposed but Uninfected (HEU) Infants Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2020;7(Supplement_1). 
  18. Microbiology and radiographic features of osteomyelitis in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020;e28517. PMID:32710705 
  19. An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2020. PMCID:PMC7377258  PMID:32663912 
  20. Severe Pediatric COVID-19 Presenting With Respiratory Failure and Severe Thrombocytopenia. Pediatrics. 2020;146(1). PMCID:PMC7329259  PMID:32366611 
  21. The Importance of Advancing SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Children. Clin Infect Dis. 2020. PMCID:PMC7314192  PMID:32492123 
  22. Murine Model of Maternal Immunization Demonstrates Protective Role for Antibodies That Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Protecting Neonates From Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2. J Infect Dis. 2020;221(5):729-738. PMID:31599942 
  23. Plasmablast, Memory B Cell, CD4+ T Cell, and Circulating Follicular Helper T Cell Responses to a Non-Replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine. Vaccines (Basel). 2020;8(1). PMCID:PMC7158692  PMID:32041104 
  24. Hospitalization Is an Underutilized Opportunity to Vaccinate for Influenza. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(3):377-379. PMID:30832785 
  25. Meningitis due to Moraxella nonliquefaciens in a paediatric patient: a case report and review of the literature. JMM Case Rep. 2017;4(2):e005086. PMCID:PMC5361638  PMID:28348808 
  26. Cryptococcal Disease in HIV-Infected Children. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2016;18(9):27. PMID:27443557 
  27. Child and adolescent immunizations: selected review of recent US recommendations and literature. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26(3):383-95. PMID:24722457 
Last updated: 06/27/2022
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