Robert M. (Bo) Kennedy, M.D.

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Professor of Pediatrics, Emergency Medicine
Emergency Medicine

phone: (314) 454-2341

Clinical Interests

Developing methods for reducing pain and anxiety, distress, in children undergoing care in the emergency setting. Methods include investigating efficacy, efficiency and safety of techniques for procedural sedation, manimizing local anesthesia pain for procedures such as intravenous catheter insertion,fracture reductions, laceration repairs, abscess drainage and non-pharmacological approaches to support the child's coping mechanisms when faced with anxiety provoking situations.

Increasing public understanding of the impact of firearm injuries on children including means for securing firearms in the home, helping primary care providers explain risks and strategies to parents, investigating means to reduce recidivism in victims of violence.


  • BS, Georgia Institute of Technology1975
  • MD, Medical College of Georgia1980


  • Internship and Residency, St. Louis Children's Hospital1980 - 1983

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1982 - PresMO, Medical License
  • 1984 - PresAdvanced Trauma Life Support
  • 1984AK, Medical License
  • 1985 - PresAmerican Board of Pediatrics
  • 1986 - PresSexual Assault Forensic Examination (S.A.F.E.) - Provider
  • 1988 - PresPediatric Advanced Life Support Provider / Instructor
  • 1989Advanced Burn Life Support
  • 1990 - PresAdvanced Trauma Life Support - Instructor
  • 1992 - PresAmerican Board of Pediatrics, Subspecialty Pediatric Emergency Medicine
  • 1992NC, Medical License

Honors and Awards

  • Selected by Peers for Inclusion in the First Edition of the Best Doctors in America: Central Region1996 - 2018
  • Emergency Department Physician of the Year, Emergency Nurses Association, Greater St. Louis Chapter2000
  • Selected by Peers in Best Doctors in America2003 - 2019
  • St. Louis Children's Hospital High Five Award2014
  • Triple Crown Winner, Children's Direct2019
  • EU Strong Award, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Emergency Medicine2019

Recent Publications view all (31)

  1. Mentoring Pediatric Victims of Interpersonal Violence Reduces Recidivism J. Interpers Violence. 2020;35(21-22):4262-4275. doi:10.1177/0886260517705662  PMID:29294791 
  2. A Narrative Review with Practical Advice on How to Decrease Pain and Distress During Venepuncture and Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation. Acta Paediatrica. 2020;1-10. doi:10.1111/apa.15526  PMID:32772423 
  3. Clinical practice guideline for emergency department ketamine dissociative sedation: 2011 update. Ann Emerg Med. 2017;57(5):449-461. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.11.030  PMID:21256625  
  4. Update on pharmacological management of procedural sedation for children. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2016;29 Suppl 1:S21-35. PMID:26926332 
  5. Rapid administration technique of ketamine for pediatric forearm fracture reduction: a dose-finding study. Ann Emerg Med. 2015;65(6):640-648.e2. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.12.011  PMID:25595951 
  6. Nonpharmacologic Techniques for Distress Reduction During Emergency Medical Care: A Review. Clin Ped Emerg Med 2010 (Dec.);11(4):244-250. Clin Pediatr Emerg Med. 2010;11(4):244-250.  
  7. Laryngospasm during emergency department ketamine sedation: a case-control study. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26(11):798-802. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181fa8737  PMID:20944510 
  8. Anticholinergics and ketamine sedation in children: a secondary analysis of atropine versus glycopyrrolate. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(2):157-162. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00634.x  PMID:20370745 
  9. Consensus Panel on Sedation Research of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Consensus-Based Recommendations for Standardizing Terminology and Reporting Adverse Events for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Children Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53(4):426-435. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.09.030  PMID:19026467 
  10. A randomized, crossover comparison of injected buffered lidocaine, lidocaine cream, and no analgesia for peripheral intravenous cannula insertion. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(2):214-220. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.12.025  PMID:19217695 
  11. Predictors of emesis and recovery agitation with emergency department ketamine sedation: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of 8,282 children. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(2):171-80.e1-4. PMCID:doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.04.004  PMID:19501426 
  12. Predictors of airway and respiratory adverse events with ketamine sedation in the emergency department: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of 8,282 children. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(2):158-168.e1-4. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.12.011  PMID:19201064 
  13. Clinical implications of unmanaged needle-insertion pain and distress in children Pediatrics. 2008;122(Suppl):3:S130-3. PMCID:doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1055i  PMID:18978006  
  14. On the front lines: lessons learned in implementing multidisciplinary peripheral venous access pain-management programs in pediatric hospitals Pediatrics. 2008;122(Suppl ):3:S161-70. PMCID:doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1055i  PMID:18978010 
  15. Oxycodone versus codeine for triage pain in children with suspected forearm fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008;24(9):595-600. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181850ca3  PMID:18772726 
  16. Clinical policy: Critical issues in the sedation of pediatric patients in the emergency department Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51(4):378-99 399.e1-57. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.11.001  PMID:18359378  
  17. Pediatric Sedation Pearls Clin Pediatr Emerg Med. 2007;8(4):268-278.  
  18. A randomized comparison of nitrous oxide plus hematoma block versus ketamine plus midazolam for emergency department forearm fracture reduction in children. Pediatrics. 2006;118(4):1078-86. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1694  PMID:16966390 
  19. Clinical policy: evidence-based approach to pharmacologic agents used in pediatric sedation and analgesia in the emergency department Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44(4):342-377. PMID:15459618  
  20. A Comparison of Buffered Lidocaine Versus ELA-Max Before Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertions in Children Pediatrics. 2004;113(3):217-e220. PMID:14993579 
  21. Emergency department management of pain and anxiety related to orthopedic fracture care: a guide to analgesic techniques and procedural sedation in children Paediatr Drugs. 2004;6(1):11-31. PMID:14969567  
  22. Sedation for peritonsillar abscess drainage in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2002;18(1):1-3. PMID:11862127 
  23. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Continuous-Flow Nitrous Oxide and Midazolam for Sedation of Young Children During Laceration Repair. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;37(1):20-27. doi:10.1067/mem.2001.11203  PMID:11145766 
  24. Pharmacological Management of Pain and Anxiety During Emergency Procedures in Children Paediatr Drugs. 2001;3(5):337-354.  
  25. Nitrous Oxide in the Pediatric Emergency Department Clin Pediatr Emerg Med. 2000;1(4):285-289.  
  26. Midazolam with ketamine: Who benefits? Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(3):295-299. PMCID:doi: 10.1016/S0196-0644(00)70085-0  PMID:28140269  
  27. The "Ouchless Emergency Department": Getting Closer: Advances in Decreasing Distress During Painful Procedures in the Emergency Department Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999;46(6):1215-1247.  
  28. Continuous-Flow Delivery of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen: A Safe and Cost-Effective Technique for Inhalation Analgesia and Sedation of Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999;15(6):388-392. doi:10.1097/00006565-199912000-00004  PMID:10608322 
  29. Comparison of Fentanyl/Midazolam with Ketamine/Midazolam for Pediatric Orthopedic Emergencies. Pediatrics. 1998;102(4, pt 1):956-963. PMID:9755272 
  30. Conscious Sedation for Pediatric Orthopaedic Emergencies. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1996;12(1):31-35. doi:10.1097/00006565-199602000-00009  PMID:8677176 
  31. Febrile Infants at Low Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection--An Appraisal of the Rochester Criteria and Implications for Management. Febrile Infant Collaborative Study Group. Pediatrics. 1994;94(3):390-396. PMID:8065869 
Last updated: 08/24/2021
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