Rakesh Rao, M.D.  Rao_R@kids.wustl.edu

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Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Newborn Medicine
Newborn Medicine

phone: (314) 454-6148


  • MBBS, Gold medal in Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences1992
  • MD, Maulana Azad Medical College 1996


  • Fellowship, University of Kentucky (Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine)2000 - 2003
  • Residency , University of Kentucky2003 - 2005

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Neonatal Resuscitation Program
  • 1996Medical Council of India
  • 2005 - 2007KY
  • 2005 - 2012American Board of Pediatrics
  • 2006 - 2017MO
  • 2008 - PresAmerican Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • 2015 - PresAmerican Board of Pediatrics (recertification)

Honors and Awards

  • Ranked 143rd out of ~60,000 in M.B;B.S entrance examination (Delhi University, India)1987
  • Gold Medal in Biochemistry, 1st MBBS (India)1988
  • Stood 5th in the Final MBBS Examination conducted by Delhi University1991
  • Ranked 129th out of ~10,000 in Post-Graduate entrance examination (Delhi University, India)1993
  • Nominated for the PN Taneja Award for best dissertation during postgraduate training1995
  • Trainee Travel Award (Southern Society for Pediatric Research)2001
  • Chief Fellow, Neonatal-perinatal Medicine, University of Kentucky2002 - 2003
  • Trainee Travel Award (Southern Society of Pediatric Research)2003
  • Outstanding Resident, Pediatric Gastroenterology, University of Kentucky2003 - 2004
  • Newborn Medicine Follow Up Clinic: April Faculty Recognition from Division of Newborn Medicine2011
  • Golden Collaborative Award (awarded to SLCH team by the CHND/CHA for efforts in the STEPP IN project )2015
  • Silver Sustainabilty Award (Awarded by the CHA/CHNC to the SLCH team for the STEPP IN project)2015
  • First Place: A Sustained Inter-Professional Improvement Initiative for Unplanned Extubation Reduction in the NICU. 2020 Patient Safety & Quality Symposium2020

Recent Publications view all (56)

Publication Co-Authors

  1. Feasibility and Impact of a Pilot Neonatal Cuddler Program on Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Am J Perinatol. 2022. 
  2. Current Practices for Genetic Testing in Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Findings from a National survey. Perfusion. 2022;2676591221130178. PMID:36169593 
  3. Practice variations for fetal and neonatal congenital heart disease within the Children's Hospitals Neonatal Consortium. Pediatr Res. 2022. PMID:36167818 
  4. Current Practices for Genetic Testing in Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Findings from a National survey Perfusion. 2022. doi:DOI: 10.1177/02676591221130178  
  5. An Amplitude-Integrated EEG Evaluation of Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. Am J Perinatol. 2022. PMID:35709730 
  6. Trial of Erythropoietin for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns. N Engl J Med. 2022;387(2):148-159. PMID:35830641 
  7. Opioid exposure during therapeutic hypothermia and short-term outcomes in neonatal encephalopathy. J Perinatol. 2022. PMID:35474129 
  8. Mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE): timing and pattern of MRI brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2022. PMID:35354930 
  9. Correction: Noninvasive neurocritical care monitoring for neonates on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: where do we stand? J Perinatol. 2021;41(10):2573. PMID:34408260 
  10. Parental Enrollment Decision-Making for a Neonatal Clinical Trial. J Pediatr. 2021. doi:34400207  PMID:34400207 
  11. Acute and Chronic Placental Abnormalities in a Multicenter Cohort of Newborn Infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. J Pediatr. 2021;237:190-196. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.06.023. Epub 2021 Jun 16  PMID:34144032 
  12. Medical and surgical interventions and outcomes for infants with trisomy 18 (T18) or trisomy 13 (T13) at children's hospitals neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) J Perinatol. 2021;41(7):1745-1754. doi:10.1038/s41372-021-01111-9  PMCID: PMCID: PMC8191443   PMID: 34112961 
  13. Venovenous versus venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: is there a difference in outcome? J Perinatol. 2021. doi:10.1038/s41372-021-01089-4.   PMID:34012056 
  14. Integrating neuroimaging biomarkers into the multicentre, high-dose erythropoietin for asphyxia and encephalopathy (HEAL) trial: rationale, protocol and harmonisation BMJ Open. 2021. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043852   PMCID:8070884  PMID:33888528 
  15. Noninvasive neurocritical care monitoring for neonates on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: where do we stand? J Perinatol. 2021;41(4):830-835. PMID:32753710 
  16. Withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration: a survey of level IV neonatal intensive care units 2021;41(9):2372-2374. doi:10.1038/s41372-021-01011-y  
  17. Anemia of prematurity: how low is too low? J Perinatol.. 2021. doi:10.1038/s41372-021-00992-0 Epub 2021 Mar 4.  PMID:33664467 
  18. Predictive Models of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Pediatrics. 2021. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-022962. Epub 2021 Jan 15  PMID:33452064 
  19. Parental Factors Associated With the Decision to Participate in a Neonatal Clinical Trial.doi: PMID: JAMA Netw Open.. 2021;4(1):e2032106.. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.32106   PMID:33433595 
  20. Endotracheal Tube Replacement in a Neonate Using an Airway Exchange Catheter NeoReviews. 2020;21(11):e782-e786. doi:10.1542/neo.21-11-e782   PMID: 33139518 
  21. Utilization of Therapeutic Hypothermia and Neurological Injury in Neonates with Mild Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Report from Children's Hospital Neonatal Consortium. Am J Perinatol . 2020. doi:doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1716341.  PMID:32892328 
  22. The Challenge of Risk Stratification of Infants Born Preterm in the Setting of Competing and Disparate Healthcare Outcomes J Peds. 2020;223:194-196. doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.043   PMCID: PMC7476078  PMID:32711746 
  23. Decreasing Unplanned Extubation in the Neonatal ICU With a Focus on Endotracheal Tube Tip Position Respir Care. 2020. doi: doi: 10.4187/respcare.07446  PMID:32265290 
  24. Antimicrobial therapy utilization in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE): a report from the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database (CHND) J Perinatol. 2020;40:70–78. doi:DOI: 10.1038/s41372-019-0527-2  PMID:<31611619> 
  25. Antimicrobial therapy utilization in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE): a report from the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database (CHND). J Perinatol. 2020;40(1):70-78. PMID:31611619 
  26. Association of Neonatologist Continuity of Care and Short-Term Patient Outcomes. J Peds. 2019;2019 Sep;212:131-136.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.05.023.   PMID:31201026 
  27. Early red cell transfusion is associated with development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. J Perinatol. 2019;39(3):393-400. doi:doi: 10.1038/s41372-018-0274-9. Epub 2018 Nov 20.  PMCID:PMC6391181  PMID:30459388 
  28. Practice Variation ni anti-epileptic drug use for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy among regional NICUs BMC Pediatrics. 2019;19(1):67. doi:doi: 10.1186/s12887-019-1441-7.  PMID:30813933 
  29. Withdrawal of Life-support in neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy Pediatr Neurol. 2019;91:20-26. doi:doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.08.027. Epub 2018 Nov 23.  PMID:30559002 
  30. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in neonates with Mild hypoxic-ischemic encephaloapthy treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia Am J Perinatol. 2019. doi:doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676973.  PMID:30609430 
  31. Anemia of prematurity and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy: should transfusion thresholds in preterm infants be revised? J Perinatol. 2018. doi:doi: 10.1038/s41372-018-0120-0  PMID:29740185 
  32. Re-examining the arterial cord blood gas pH screening criteria in neonatal encephalopathy Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. . 2017. doi:<10.1136/archdischild-2017-313078>  PMID:28942435 
  33. Awareness of cord blood collection and the impact on banking. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(7). PMID:28111924 
  34. The effect of therapeutic hypothermia on heart rate variability. J Perinatol. 2017;37(6):679-683. doi:10.1038/jp.2017.42  PMID:28383534 
  35. A validated clinical MRI injury scoring system in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Radiol. 2017;11(47):1491-1499. doi:10.1007/s00247-017-3893-y. Epub 2017 Jun 16.  PMID:28623417 
  36. Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus of Prematurity: Amyloid Precursor Protein, Soluble Amyloid Precursor Protein α, and L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule. Neurosurgery. 2017;80(1):82-90. PMCID:PMC5326702  PMID:27571524 
  37. Safety and Short-Term Outcomes of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Preterm Neonates 34-35 Weeks Gestational Age with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy J Pediatr. 2016. doi:doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.11.019  PMID:27979578 
  38. Intercenter Cost Variation for Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Era of Therapeutic Hypothermia. J Peds. 2016;173:76-83. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.033  PMID:26995699 
  39. Treating EEG seizures in Hypoxic Ischemic encephalopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2015;136(5):e1302-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-3777  PMID:26482675 
  40. Congenital Acute leukemia with unique translocation t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) Cureus. 2015;7(7):e289. doi:10.7759/cureus.289  PMCID:4523210  
  41. Depth of Bacterial Invasion in Resected Intestinal Tissue Predicts Mortality in Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis J Perinatol. 2015. 
  42. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid precursor protein are associated with ventricular size in post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0115045. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115045  PMCID:PMC4349693  PMID:25738507 
  43. Short-term outcomes after perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a report from the Children's Hospitals Neonatal Consortium HIE focus group. J Perinatol. 2014. doi:10.1038/jp.2014.190  PMID:25393081 
  44. Head Position Change Is Not Associated with Acute Changes in Bilateral Cerebral Oxygenation in Stable Preterm Infants during the First 3 Days of Life. Am J Perinatol. 2014. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1390348  PMID:25282608 
  45. The association of type of surgical closure on length of stay among infants with gastroschisis born≥34 weeks' gestation. J Pediatr Surg. 2014;49(8):1220-5. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.12.020  PMID:25092080 
  46. Posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation-impact on early neurodevelopmental outcome. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30(3):207-14. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1323581  PMID:22898993 
  47. Gastrointestinal complications associated with ibuprofen therapy for patent ductus arteriosus. J Perinatol. 2011;31(7):465-70. doi:10.1038/jp.2010.199  PMID:21252965 
  48. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in infants <32 weeks gestational age: correlation with antenatal factors and postnatal outcomes. Pediatr Res. 2009;65(5):548-52. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819d9ea5  PMCID:PMC2735819  PMID:19190539 
  49. Outcomes of exomphalos: an institutional experience. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25(2):139-44. doi:10.1007/s00383-008-2301-y  PMID:19066916 
  50. Neurobehavior of preterm infants at 36 weeks postconception as a function of morphine analgesia. Am J Perinatol. 2007;24(9):511-7. doi:10.1055/s-2007-986675  PMID:17907073 
  51. Intestinal lymphangiectasia presenting as abdominal mass. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65(3):522-3, discussion 523. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2006.10.026  PMID:17321261 
  52. Surgical complications of Salmonella Enteritis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2005;44(9):767-9. PMID:16327962 
  53. Lipid rafts in cytokine signaling. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2004;15(2-3):103-10. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2004.01.003  PMID:15110794 
  54. Lipid rafts, major histocompatibility complex molecules, and immune regulation. Hum Immunol. 2002;63(10):813-20. PMID:12368033 
  55. OxyContin and neonatal abstinence syndrome. J Perinatol. 2002;22(4):324-5. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7210744  PMID:12032797 
  56. Pulse oximetry in asphyxiated newborns in the delivery room. Indian Pediatr. 2001;38(7):762-6. PMID:11463963 
Last updated: 10/27/2022
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