Phillip I. Tarr, M.D.

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Division Chief, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Co-Leader, Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Melvin E. Carnahan Professor of Pediatrics
Professor of Molecular Microbiology
Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

phone: (314) 454-6173


  • BA, Brown University1975
  • MD, Yale University School of Medicine1980


  • Intern/Resident, University of Washington School of Medicine/Children's Orthopedic Hospital and Medical Center1980 - 1983
  • Senior Fellow, University of Washington School of Medicine1983 - 1987
  • Fellow, University of Washington School of Medicine and Children's Hospital and Medical Center 1988 - 1989

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Pediatrics - ABP 1984
  • Pediatric Gastroenterology - ABP 1992
  • MO, 2002
  • BCS 2012
  • The American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) 2013
  • AR, 2016


  • American Gastroenterological Association/Blackwell Scientific Research Scholar Award1992 - 1995
  • Food and Drug Administration Commissioner's Special Citation1997 - 1997
  • Melvin E. Carnahan Professor of Pediatrics, Endowed Chair2004 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (182)

  1. Performance of Stool Testing Recommendations for Acute Gastroenteritis when Used to Identify Children with Nine Potential Bacterial Enteropathogens. Clin Infect Dis. 2018. PMID:30517612 
  2. Case definitions of hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection vary in validity. Int J Med Microbiol. 2018;308(8):1121-1127. PMID:30466555 
  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(21):2002-2014. PMID:30462938 
  4. Infant diet and maternal gestational weight gain predict early metabolic maturation of gut microbiomes. Nat Med. 2018. PMID:30374198 
  5. Strength of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection varies with case definition. Int J Med Microbiol. 2018;308(7):921-926. PMID:30257808 
  6. Diagnostic Interpretation Guidance for Pediatric Enteric Pathogens: A Modified Delphi Consensus Process. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2018;2018:2589826. PMCID:PMC6180965  PMID:30363711 
  7. Gut Sphingolipid Composition as a Prelude to Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):10984. PMID:30030452 
  8. Relationship between Enteric Pathogen and Acute Gastroenteritis Disease Severity - A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018. PMID:29964235 
  9. Importance of case age in the purported association between phylogenetics and hemolytic uremic syndrome in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Epidemiol Infect. 2018;1-6. PMID:29914582 
  10. Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection in Children With Bloody Diarrhea. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018. PMID:29617871 
  11. Acute Responses to Diuretic Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Results from the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Cohort Study J Pediatr. 2018. PMID:29599068 
  12. Acute Responses to Diuretic Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Results from the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Cohort Study. J Pediatr. 2018. PMID:29599068 
  13. Carriage of Cronobacter sakazakii in the very preterm infant gut. Clin Infect Dis. 2018. PMID:29394356 
  14. Geogenomic Segregation and Temporal Trends of Human Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, Washington, USA, 2005-20141. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(1):32-39. PMCID:PMC5749469  PMID:29260688 
  15. Microbial antigen encounter during a preweaning interval is critical for tolerance to gut bacteria. Sci Immunol. 2017;2(18). PMCID:PMC5759965  PMID:29246946 
  16. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: A Case Definition for Intervention Trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97(6):1643-1646. PMID:29016294 
  17. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(12):1963-1973. PMID:29194529 
  18. Serologic Evidence of Gut-driven Systemic Inflammation in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2017;44(11):1624-1631. PMID:28916545 
  19. The Microbiome and Biomarkers for Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Are We Any Closer to Prediction? J Pediatr. 2017;189:40-47.e2. PMCID:PMC5614810  PMID:28669607 
  20. Randomised controlled trial of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) versus placebo in children presenting to the emergency department with acute gastroenteritis: the PECARN probiotic study protocol. BMJ Open. 2017;7(9):e018115. PMCID:PMC5623493  PMID:28947466 
  21. Measurement of gut permeability using fluorescent tracer agent technology. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):10888. PMCID:PMC5589723  PMID:28883476 
  22. Case-Control Assessment of the Roles of Noroviruses, Human Bocaviruses 2, 3, and 4, and Novel Polyomaviruses and Astroviruses in Acute Childhood Diarrhea. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017;6(3):e49-e54. PMID:28186546 
  23. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217(3):356.e1-356.e18. PMCID:PMC5581228  PMID:28549981 
  24. Enteropathogen detection in children with diarrhoea, or vomiting, or both, comparing rectal flocked swabs with stool specimens: an outpatient cohort study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2(9):662-669. PMID:28712662 
  25. Impaired Barrier Function and Autoantibody Generation in Malnutrition Enteropathy in Zambia. EBioMedicine. 2017;22:191-199. PMCID:PMC5552244  PMID:28750860 
  26. Independence of gut bacterial content and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis severity. J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52(6):993-998. PMCID:PMC5473614  PMID:28410788 
  27. Intestinal dysbiosis in preterm infants preceding necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Microbiome. 2017;5(1):31. PMCID:PMC5343300  PMID:28274256 
  28. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and the Fecal Microbiota in Malawian Children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96(2):473-476. PMCID:PMC5303055  PMID:27956653 
  29. Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(1):68-76. PMID:27893870 
  30. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Is Associated With Poor Linear Growth and Can Be Identified by Host Fecal mRNAs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63(5):453-459. PMCID:PMC5084633  PMID:27347722 
  31. Antibiotic perturbation of the preterm infant gut microbiome and resistome. Gut Microbes. 2016;7(5):443-9. PMCID:PMC5154371  PMID:27472377 
  32. Whole Genome Sequencing for Genomics-Guided Investigations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:985. PMCID:PMC4928038  PMID:27446025 
  33. Development of the gut microbiota and mucosal IgA responses in twins and gnotobiotic mice. Nature. 2016;534(7606):263-6. PMCID:PMC4902178  PMID:27279225 
  34. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):1251-1258. PMCID:PMC4845788  PMID:26917812 
  35. Gut bacteria dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a prospective case-control study. Lancet. 2016;387(10031):1928-36. PMCID:PMC5553277  PMID:26969089 
  36. Droplet digital PCR quantifies host inflammatory transcripts in feces reliably and reproducibly. Cell Immunol. 2016;303:43-9. PMCID:PMC4863679  PMID:27063479 
  37. Developmental dynamics of the preterm infant gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:16024. PMCID:PMC5031140  PMID:27572443 
  38. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Includes a Broad Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial Repair Processes. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2(2):158-174.e1. PMCID:PMC4769221  PMID:26973864 
  39. Gut Colonization of Healthy Children and Their Mothers With Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 2015;212(12):1862-8. PMCID:PMC4655851  PMID:25969564 
  40. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015;12(12):1822-30. PMCID:PMC4722827  PMID:26397992 
  41. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;36(10):1173-82. PMCID:PMC5089903  PMID:26108888 
  42. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants. Nat Med. 2015;21(10):1228-34. PMCID:PMC4710368  PMID:26366711 
  43. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children. Microbiome. 2015;3:37. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0102-9  PMCID:PMC4558878  PMID:26334878 
  44. Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam (APPETITE): epidemiology, emerging organisms, and economics. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:89. PMCID:PMC4521468  PMID:26226953 
  45. Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Clinical Samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(7):2148-53. PMCID:PMC4473226  PMID:25926491 
  46. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130902. PMCID:PMC4509574  PMID:26125937 
  47. Development of an enhanced human gastrointestinal epithelial culture system to facilitate patient-based assays. Gut. 2015;64(6):911-20. PMCID:PMC4305344  PMID:25007816 
  48. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach. J Perinatol. 2015;35(5):313-21. doi:10.1038/jp.2015.19  PMCID:PMC4414744  PMID:25811285 
  49. Prematurity and respiratory outcomes program (PROP): study protocol of a prospective multicenter study of respiratory outcomes of preterm infants in the United States. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:37. PMCID:PMC4407843  PMID:25886363 
  50. Agitation down-regulates immunoglobulin binding protein EibG expression in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0119583. PMCID:PMC4352079  PMID:25746924 
  51. Gut resistome development in healthy twin pairs in the first year of life. Microbiome. 2015;3:27. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0090-9  PMCID:PMC4480905  PMID:26113976 
  52. Small bowel resection induces long-term changes in the enteric microbiota of mice. J Gastrointest Surg. 2015;19(1):56-64; discussion 64. PMCID:PMC4576885  PMID:25183407 
  53. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates: a single-center study. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(12):4260-6. PMCID:PMC4313296  PMID:25275005 
  54. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: a single-center, 11-year pediatric experience. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(10):3647-53. PMCID:PMC4187762  PMID:25078916 
  55. Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(34):12522-7. PMCID:PMC4151715  PMID:25114261 
  56. Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(9):1211-8. PMCID:PMC3982840  PMID:24647013 
  57. Heteropathogenic virulence and phylogeny reveal phased pathogenic metamorphosis in Escherichia coli O2:H6. EMBO Mol Med. 2014;6(3):347-57. PMCID:PMC3958309  PMID:24413188 
  58. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain 2886-75, Associated with the First Reported Case of Human Infection in the United States. Genome Announc. 2014;2(1). PMCID:PMC3886948  PMID:24407635 
  59. Fecal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in healthy children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(2):1261-2. PMCID:PMC3910844  PMID:24277049 
  60. Precise dissection of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(12):3950-4. PMCID:PMC3838074  PMID:24048526 
  61. Viral co-infections are common and are associated with higher bacterial burden in children with clostridium difficile infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57(6):813-6. PMCID:PMC4098970  PMID:23838821 
  62. Intestinal inflammatory biomarkers and outcome in pediatric Clostridium difficile infections. J Pediatr. 2013;163(6):1697-1704.e2. PMCID:PMC4098967  PMID:24011765 
  63. Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e78822. PMCID:PMC3827270  PMID:24236055 
  64. Validation of the modified Vesikari score in children with gastroenteritis in 5 US emergency departments. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57(4):514-9. PMCID:PMC3788842  PMID:23676445 
  65. Dysregulation of angiopoietin 1 and 2 in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2013;208(6):929-33. PMCID:PMC3749007  PMID:23801605 
  66. Gastrointestinal viruses were not found as an aetiology of culture-negative illness in NICU patients. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013;98(4):F374-5. PMID:23563694 
  67. Markers of intestinal inflammation, not bacterial burden, correlate with clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(12):1713-21. PMCID:PMC3707425  PMID:23487367 
  68. Whole-Genome Draft Sequences of 26 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains. Genome Announc. 2013;1(2):e0013412. PMCID:PMC3593324  PMID:23516226 
  69. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body. Genome Biol. 2013;14(1):R1. PMCID:PMC4054670  PMID:23316946 
  70. Use and accuracy of diagnostic imaging by hospital type in pediatric appendicitis. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):e37-44. PMCID:PMC3529953  PMID:23266930 
  71. Detection of low-concentration host mRNA transcripts in Malawian children at risk for environmental enteropathy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;56(1):66-71. PMID:22832511 
  72. Diarrhea etiology in a pediatric emergency department: a case control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(7):897-904. PMCID:PMC3657524  PMID:22700832 
  73. Editorial commentary: Escherichia coli O104:H4 and hemolytic uremic syndrome: the analysis begins. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(6):760-3. PMID:22670035 
  74. Risk factors for the hemolytic uremic syndrome in children infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7: a multivariable analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(1):33-41. PMCID:PMC3493180  PMID:22431799 
  75. Azithromycin decolonization of STEC--a new risk emerges. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012;8(7):429. PMID:22664737 
  76. The CXCR4/CXCR7/SDF-1 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(2):759-76. PMCID:PMC3266777  PMID:22232208 
  77. Early volume expansion during diarrhea and relative nephroprotection during subsequent hemolytic uremic syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(10):884-9. PMCID:PMC4064458  PMID:21784993 
  78. The age of necrotizing enterocolitis onset: an application of Sartwell's incubation period model. J Perinatol. 2011;31(8):519-23. PMCID:PMC3145821  PMID:21273988 
  79. Obscured phylogeny and possible recombinational dormancy in Escherichia coli. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:183. PMCID:PMC3152902  PMID:21708031 
  80. Bacterial DNA content in the intestinal wall from infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(6):1029-33. PMCID:PMC3118995  PMID:21683193 
  81. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli haemolysin is cleaved and inactivated by serine protease EspPα. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13(5):1327-41. PMCID:PMC3472028  PMID:21352460 
  82. Chromosomal instability in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: impact on adherence, tellurite resistance and colony phenotype. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79(4):1024-44. PMCID:PMC3064760  PMID:21299654 
  83. Further evidence of constrained radiation in the evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10(8):1282-5. PMCID:PMC3742067  PMID:20691811 
  84. Bacterial macroscopic rope-like fibers with cytopathic and adhesive properties. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(42):32336-42. PMCID:PMC2952234  PMID:20688909 
  85. Proinflammatory fecal mRNA and childhood bacterial enteric infections. Gut Microbes. 2010;1(4):209-212. PMCID:PMC3023602  PMID:21327027 
  86. Shiga toxin 1 interaction with enterocytes causes apical protein mistargeting through the depletion of intracellular galectin-3. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316(4):657-66. PMCID:PMC2815162  PMID:19744479 
  87. Deer sausage: a newly identified vehicle of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Pediatr. 2009;155(4):587-9. PMID:19773004 
  88. A method for isolating and analyzing human mRNA from newborn stool. J Immunol Methods. 2009;349(1-2):56-60. PMCID:PMC2850193  PMID:19660464 
  89. The Escherichia coli ycbQRST operon encodes fimbriae with laminin-binding and epithelial cell adherence properties in Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11(7):1815-26. PMCID:PMC2888687  PMID:19508558 
  90. A precise reconstruction of the emergence and constrained radiations of Escherichia coli O157 portrayed by backbone concatenomic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(21):8713-8. PMCID:PMC2689004  PMID:19439656 
  91. Parental management of childhood diarrhea. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009;48(3):295-303. PMID:19023110 
  92. Tri-county comprehensive assessment of risk factors for sporadic reportable bacterial enteric infection in children. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(4):467-76. PMCID:PMC3693595  PMID:19281302 
  93. Detection and characterization of the fimbrial sfp cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O165:H25/NM isolates from humans and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75(1):64-71. PMCID:PMC2612197  PMID:18978078 
  94. Prevalence and mechanisms of broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: a children's hospital experience. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(11):3909-14. PMCID:PMC2573145  PMID:18765688 
  95. Recent advances and evidence gaps in persistent diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47(2):260-5. PMID:18664885 
  96. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of common strains of Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(8):2800-4. PMCID:PMC2519505  PMID:18550738 
  97. Associations between bovine, human, and raw milk, and beef isolates of non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli within a restricted geographic area of the United States. J Food Prot. 2008;71(5):1023-7. PMID:18522040 
  98. Metagenomic analysis of human diarrhea: viral detection and discovery. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4(2):e1000011. PMCID:PMC2290972  PMID:18398449 
  99. Fim operon variation in the emergence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: an evolutionary and functional analysis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;273(1):58-63. PMID:17559392 
  100. Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73(10):3144-50. PMCID:PMC1907125  PMID:17400784 
  101. Greater diversity of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites among Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle than in those from humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73(3):671-9. PMCID:PMC1800756  PMID:17142358 
  102. Expression of the Escherichia coli IrgA homolog adhesin is regulated by the ferric uptake regulation protein. Microb Pathog. 2006;41(6):207-17. PMCID:PMC2039900  PMID:16954050 
  103. Diarrhea etiology in a Children's Hospital Emergency Department: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(7):807-13. PMID:16941358 
  104. Ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the fecal microflora of children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(10):3325-9. PMCID:PMC1610095  PMID:17005812 
  105. Proteomics-based expression library screening (PELS): a novel method for rapidly defining microbial immunoproteomes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5(8):1514-9. PMCID:PMC2754196  PMID:16737953 
  106. Expression of putative virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 differs in bovine and human infections. Infect Immun. 2006;74(7):4142-8. PMCID:PMC1489682  PMID:16790788 
  107. Lipopolysaccharide from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli binds to platelets through TLR4 and CD62 and is detected on circulating platelets in patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Blood. 2006;108(1):167-76. PMCID:PMC1895830  PMID:16514062 
  108. Molecular profiling and phenotype analysis of Escherichia coli O26:H11 and O26:NM: secular and geographic consistency of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(8):4225-8. PMCID:PMC1233958  PMID:16081985 
  109. Relative nephroprotection during Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: association with intravenous volume expansion. Pediatrics. 2005;115(6):e673-80. PMID:15930195 
  110. Use of in vivo-induced antigen technology for identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 proteins expressed during human infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73(5):2665-79. PMCID:PMC1087376  PMID:15845468 
  111. Etiology of diarrhea in pediatric outpatient settings. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(2):142-8. PMID:15702043 
  112. The IrgA homologue adhesin Iha is an Escherichia coli virulence factor in murine urinary tract infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73(2):965-71. PMCID:PMC546986  PMID:15664939 
  113. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting O157:NM clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(1):452-4. PMCID:PMC540173  PMID:15635013 
  114. Shiga toxin antigen detection should not replace sorbitol MacConkey agar screening of stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(9):4416; author reply 4416-7. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.9.4416-4417.2004  PMCID:PMC516334  PMID:15365063 
  115. Escherichia coli O157 exposure in Wyoming and Seattle: serologic evidence of rural risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(10):1226-31. doi:10.3201/eid0910.020254  PMCID:PMC3033090  PMID:14609456 
  116. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Montana: bacterial genotypes and clinical profiles. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(5):719-29. doi:10.1086/376999  PMID:12934188 
  117. High-frequency secondary mutations after suicide-driven allelic exchange mutagenesis in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185(17):5301-5. PMCID:PMC180995  PMID:12923106 
  118. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages: integrations, excisions, truncations, and evolutionary implications. J Bacteriol. 2003;185(12):3596-605. PMCID:PMC156235  PMID:12775697 
  119. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in association with typhoid fever. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(3):709-13. doi:10.1053/ajkd.2003.50135  PMID:12612998 
  120. Cardiac ischemia during hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18(3):286-9. doi:10.1007/s00467-002-1039-3  PMID:12644926 
  121. Single multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect diverse loci associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(1):127-31. doi:10.3201/eid0901.010507  PMCID:PMC2873745  PMID:12533296 
  122. Platelet-activating factor and Escherichia coliO157:H7 infections. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17(12):1047-52. PMID:12478356 
  123. Molecular characterization of a serotype O121:H19 clone, a distinct Shiga toxin-producing clone of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2002;70(12):6853-9. PMCID:PMC133070  PMID:12438362 
  124. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea: a prospective point-of-care study. J Pediatr. 2002;141(2):172-7. PMID:12183710 
  125. StcE, a metalloprotease secreted by Escherichia coli O157:H7, specifically cleaves C1 esterase inhibitor. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45(2):277-88. PMID:12123444 
  126. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: discordance between filterable fecal shiga toxin and disease outcome. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(1):57-63. PMID:12089662 
  127. Analysis of urinary Escherichia coli isolates for ability to produce Shiga toxin. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(6):2247-8. PMCID:PMC130820  PMID:12037099 
  128. ABO and P1 blood group antigen expression and stx genotype and outcome of childhood Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. J Infect Dis. 2002;185(2):214-9. PMID:11807695 
  129. Prothrombotic coagulation abnormalities preceding the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(1):23-32. PMID:11777999 
  130. Identification and characterization of a novel genomic island integrated at selC in locus of enterocyte effacement-negative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2001;69(11):6863-73. PMCID:PMC100065  PMID:11598060 
  131. Thrombogenic alleles, Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001;12(4):283-8. PMID:11460012 
  132. von Willebrand factor and von Willebrand factor-cleaving metalloprotease activity in Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Res. 2001;49(5):653-9. PMID:11328948 
  133. Acquisition of the rfb-gnd cluster in evolution of Escherichia coli O55 and O157. J Bacteriol. 2000;182(21):6183-91. PMCID:PMC94755  PMID:11029441 
  134. Comparison of Escherichia coli O157:H7 antigen detection in stool and broth cultures to that in sorbitol-MacConkey agar stool cultures. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(9):3404-6. PMCID:PMC87394  PMID:10970391 
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