Gary A. Silverman, M.D., Ph.D.  gsilverman@wustl.edu

The Harriet B. Spoehrer Professor and Chairman, Department of Pediatrics
Executive Director, Children's Discovery Institute, Washington University School of Medicine/St. Louis Children's Hospital
Professor, Cell Biology & Physiology
Professor, Genetics
Researcher, Developmental Biology
Developmental BiologySchool of MedicineNewborn Medicine

phone: (314) 454-6148

Education

  • BA, Washington and Jefferson College1978
  • PhD, University of Chicago1982
  • MD, University of Chicago, Pritzer School of Medicine1984

Training

  • Internship, The Children’s Hospital1984 - 1985
  • Junior Assistant Resident, The Children’s Hospital1985 - 1986
  • Senior Assistant Resident, The Children’s Hospital1986 - 1987
  • Fellowship, St. Louis Children’s Hospital/Washington University School of Medicine1987 - 1989
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Washington University School of Medicine1988 - 1991

Licensure and Board Certification

  • National Board of Medical Examiners (Diplomate) 1985
  • MO, Medical License 1987
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics 1988
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine 1989
  • MA, Medical License 1991
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine - recertification 1997
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine - recertification 2004
  • PA, Medical License 2004
  • American Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine - recertification 2013
  • MO, Medical License 2016

Honors

  • Phi Sigma, Biology Honorary Society1976
  • Phi Beta Kappa, Washington and Jefferson College1978
  • Solon E. Summerfield Scholarship, Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity1978
  • Birch Scholarship Award, Washington and Jefferson College1978
  • National Science Foundation, Student Originated Studies Program1978
  • National Research Service Award: Medical Scientist Training Program University of Chicago1978
  • The Medical Alumni Prize, University of Chicago1982
  • Individual National Research Service Award, NICHHD1988
  • Leukemia Society Special Fellowship1991
  • FIRST Award, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development1991
  • Lucille P. Markey Trust Child Health Fellowship1992
  • William Randolph Hearst Award1992
  • March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation Award1993
  • Elsa U. Pardee Foundation Award1994
  • Biology Smokeless Tobacco Research Council Award1994
  • The Stewart Trust of Washington D.C., Alexander and Margaret Stewart Trust Grant, in Support of Promising Ideas in Basic and Applied Cancer2001
  • Inaugural Class Hartwell Individual Biomedical Research Award2006
  • Top Doctors, Pittsburgh Magazine2009
  • Twenty-Five Club Endowed Professorship, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine2009 - 2016
  • Top Doctors, Pittsburgh Magazine2010
  • Cellome Award, Thermo Scientific2011
  • America’s Top Doctors, Castle Connolly2011
  • Top Doctors, Pittsburgh Magazine2011
  • Distinguished Service Award, Washington & Jefferson College2011
  • America’s Top Doctors, Castle Connolly2012
  • 2014 AAP CME/CPD Award (Continuing Medical Education /Continuing Professional Development)2014
  • Top Doctors, Pittsburgh Magazine2015
  • 2015 Marshall W. Webster Physician Leadership Program, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine2015
  • 2015 Scholars Day Award, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine2015
  • The Harriet B. Spoehrer Professorship of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine2016
  • America’s Top Doctors, Castle Connolly2016
  • America’s Top Doctors, Castle Connolly2017

Recent Publications view all (110)


Publication Co-Authors

  1. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen as an early indicator of response during therapy of cervical cancer. Br J Cancer. 2017. PMID:29112685 
  2. Activation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Degenerin Channel by Shear Stress Requires the MEC-10 Subunit. J Biol Chem. 2016;291(27):14012-22. PMCID:PMC4933161  PMID:27189943 
  3. High-Throughput, Liquid-Based Genome-Wide RNAi Screening in C. elegans. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1470:151-62. PMID:27581291 
  4. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy. 2016;12(1):1-222. PMCID:PMC4835977  PMID:26799652 
  5. Enhancing Autophagy with Drugs or Lung-directed Gene Therapy Reverses the Pathological Effects of Respiratory Epithelial Cell Proteinopathy. J Biol Chem. 2015;290(50):29742-57. PMCID:PMC4705969  PMID:26494620 
  6. SERPINB12 Is a Slow-Binding Inhibitor of Granzyme A and Hepsin. Biochemistry. 2015;54(45):6756-9. PMCID:PMC4900762  PMID:26497600 
  7. Human SERPINB12 Is an Abundant Intracellular Serpin Expressed in Most Surface and Glandular Epithelia. J Histochem Cytochem. 2015;63(11):854-65. PMCID:PMC4812677  PMID:26220980 
  8. The aggregation-prone intracellular serpin SRP-2 fails to transit the ER in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2015;200(1):207-19. PMCID:PMC4423363  PMID:25786854 
  9. Deficient and Null Variants of SERPINA1 Are Proteotoxic in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0141542. PMCID:PMC4626213  PMID:26512890 
  10. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies potential drug targets in a C. elegans model of α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23(19):5123-32. PMCID:PMC4159156  PMID:24838285 
  11. A C. elegans model of human α1-antitrypsin deficiency links components of the RNAi pathway to misfolded protein turnover. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23(19):5109-22. PMCID:PMC4159155  PMID:24838286 
  12. Worming our way to novel drug discovery with the Caenorhabditis elegans proteostasis network, stress response and insulin-signaling pathways. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2014;9(9):1021-32. PMID:24998976 
  13. Expanding the C. elegans toolbox into a toolshed. Methods. 2014;68(3):379-80. PMCID:PMC5408735  PMID:25064639 
  14. Isolation of serpin-interacting proteins in C. elegans using protein affinity purification. Methods. 2014;68(3):536-41. PMCID:PMC4113314  PMID:24798811 
  15. C. elegans in high-throughput drug discovery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2014;69-70:247-53. PMCID:PMC4019719  PMID:24333896 
  16. α1-antitrypsin deficiency and the hepatocytes - an elegans solution to drug discovery. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;47:109-12. PMCID:PMC3970812  PMID:24355812 
  17. Fluphenazine reduces proteotoxicity in C. elegans and mammalian models of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e87260. PMCID:PMC3909079  PMID:24498058 
  18. Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily. Hum Genomics. 2013;7:22. PMCID:PMC3880077  PMID:24172014 
  19. A small conductance calcium-activated K+ channel in C. elegans, KCNL-2, plays a role in the regulation of the rate of egg-laying. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e75869. PMCID:PMC3769271  PMID:24040423 
  20. Disorders of protein misfolding: alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as prototype. J Pediatr. 2013;163(2):320-6. PMCID:PMC3725216  PMID:23664631 
  21. A pro-cathepsin L mutant is a luminal substrate for endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation in C. elegans. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40145. PMCID:PMC3388072  PMID:22768338 
  22. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus cysteine proteases by human serpin potentially limits staphylococcal virulence. Biol Chem. 2011;392(5):483-9. PMCID:PMC4372843  PMID:21476872 
  23. Hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis in α1-antitrypsin deficiency: a prototype for chronic tissue damage in gain-of-function disorders. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3(3). PMCID:PMC3039936  PMID:21421920 
  24. Necrotic cell death: harnessing the Dark side of the Force in mammary gland involution. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13(3):197-9. PMID:21364568 
  25. A nonredundant role for mouse Serpinb3a in the induction of mucus production in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(1):254-61, 261.e1-6. PMCID:PMC3058372  PMID:21126757 
  26. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to study serpinopathies. Methods Enzymol. 2011;499:259-81. PMCID:PMC4374434  PMID:21683258 
  27. Using C. elegans to identify the protease targets of serpins in vivo. Methods Enzymol. 2011;499:283-99. PMCID:PMC4374438  PMID:21683259 
  28. Automated high-content live animal drug screening using C. elegans expressing the aggregation prone serpin α1-antitrypsin Z. PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e15460. PMCID:PMC2980495  PMID:21103396 
  29. Serine protease activity contributes to control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hypoxic lung granulomas in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120(9):3365-76. PMCID:PMC2929725  PMID:20679732 
  30. Serpins flex their muscle: II. Structural insights into target peptidase recognition, polymerization, and transport functions. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(32):24307-12. PMCID:PMC2915666  PMID:20498368 
  31. Serpins flex their muscle: I. Putting the clamps on proteolysis in diverse biological systems. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(32):24299-305. PMCID:PMC2915665  PMID:20498369 
  32. Differential effects of periopathogens on host protease inhibitors SLPI, elafin, SCCA1, and SCCA2. J Oral Microbiol. 2010;2. PMCID:PMC3084571  PMID:21523231 
  33. Modeling molecular and cellular aspects of human disease using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Pediatr Res. 2009;65(1):10-8. PMCID:PMC2731241  PMID:18852689 
  34. Intracellular and extracellular serpins modulate lung disease. J Perinatol. 2008;28 Suppl 3:S127-35. PMID:19057604 
  35. DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(51):36980-6. PMID:17923478 
  36. An intracellular serpin regulates necrosis by inhibiting the induction and sequelae of lysosomal injury. Cell. 2007;130(6):1108-19. PMCID:PMC2128786  PMID:17889653 
  37. SERPINB11 is a new noninhibitory intracellular serpin. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the scaffold impair conformational change. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(34):24948-60. PMID:17562709 
  38. Correlation of serpin-protease expression by comparative analysis of real-time PCR profiling data. Genomics. 2006;88(2):173-84. PMID:16713170 
  39. The Caenorhabditis elegans muscle specific serpin, SRP-3, neutralizes chymotrypsin-like serine peptidases. Biochemistry. 2006;45(14):4474-80. PMCID:PMC2654365  PMID:16584183 
  40. Role of squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 expression in the invasive potential of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2006;28(1):24-30. PMID:16155915 
  41. An overview of the serpin superfamily. Genome Biol. 2006;7(5):216. PMCID:PMC1779521  PMID:16737556 
  42. Selective conservation of the RSL-encoding, proteinase inhibitory-type, clade L serpins in Caenorhabditis species. Front Biosci. 2006;11:581-94. PMID:16146754 
  43. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a preferred substrate of the human epithelium serine protease tryptase epsilon/PRSS22. Blood. 2005;105(10):3893-901. PMCID:PMC1895090  PMID:15701722 
  44. Uteroglobin suppresses SCCA gene expression associated with allergic asthma. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(11):9761-4. PMID:15677460 
  45. Identification and activity of a lower eukaryotic serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) from Cyanea capillata: analysis of a jellyfish serpin, jellypin. Biochemistry. 2004;43(37):11750-9. PMID:15362859 
  46. The amplified mouse squamous cell carcinoma antigen gene locus contains a serpin (Serpinb3b) that inhibits both papain-like cysteine and trypsin-like serine proteinases. Genomics. 2004;84(1):166-75. PMID:15203214 
  47. Comparative genomic analysis of the clade B serpin cluster at human chromosome 18q21: amplification within the mouse squamous cell carcinoma antigen gene locus. Genomics. 2004;84(1):176-84. PMID:15203215 
  48. SRP-2 is a cross-class inhibitor that participates in postembryonic development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: initial characterization of the clade L serpins. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(15):15448-59. PMID:14739286 
  49. Serpin identification, production, and characterization. Methods. 2004;32(2):71-2. PMID:14698620 
  50. Production of serpins using baculovirus expression systems. Methods. 2004;32(2):177-84. PMID:14698630 
  51. Human clade B serpins (ov-serpins) belong to a cohort of evolutionarily dispersed intracellular proteinase inhibitor clades that protect cells from promiscuous proteolysis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61(3):301-25. PMID:14770295 
  52. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against squamous cell carcinoma antigens: report of the TD-10 Workshop. Tumour Biol. 2004;25(1-2):69-90. PMID:15192315 
  53. SCCA2-like serpins mediate genetic predisposition to skin tumors. Cancer Res. 2003;63(8):1871-5. PMID:12702576 
  54. Inhibition of the cysteine proteinases cathepsins K and L by the serpin headpin (SERPINB13): a kinetic analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;409(2):367-74. PMID:12504904 
  55. Evidence that serpin architecture intrinsically supports papain-like cysteine protease inhibition: engineering alpha(1)-antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases. Biochemistry. 2002;41(15):4998-5004. PMID:11939796 
  56. The serpin SQN-5 is a dual mechanistic-class inhibitor of serine and cysteine proteinases. Biochemistry. 2002;41(9):3189-99. PMID:11863458 
  57. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen is a useful biologic marker in patients with inverted papillomas of the sinonasal tract. Cancer. 2002;94(1):152-8. PMID:11815971 
  58. SERPINB12 is a novel member of the human ov-serpin family that is widely expressed and inhibits trypsin-like serine proteinases. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(52):49320-30. PMID:11604408 
  59. The serpins are an expanding superfamily of structurally similar but functionally diverse proteins. Evolution, mechanism of inhibition, novel functions, and a revised nomenclature. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(36):33293-6. PMID:11435447 
  60. SCCA1 expression in T-lymphocytes peripheral to cancer cells is associated with the elevation of serum SCC antigen in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer Lett. 2001;167(2):205-13. PMID:11369142 
  61. Suppression of a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-related serpin, SCC antigen, inhibits tumor growth with increased intratumor infiltration of natural killer cells. Cancer Res. 2001;61(5):1776-80. PMID:11280721 
  62. Genomic cloning, mapping, structure and promoter analysis of HEADPIN, a serpin which is down-regulated in head and neck cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1492(2-3):441-6. PMID:11004515 
  63. Circulating serpin tumor markers SCCA1 and SCCA2 are not actively secreted but reside in the cytosol of squamous carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2000;89(4):368-77. PMID:10956412 
  64. Simple modifications of the serpin reactive site loop convert SCCA2 into a cysteine proteinase inhibitor: a critical role for the P3' proline in facilitating RSL cleavage. Biochemistry. 2000;39(24):7081-91. PMID:10852705 
  65. Development of specific monoclonal antibodies and a sensitive discriminatory immunoassay for the circulating tumor markers SCCA1 and SCCA2. Clin Chim Acta. 2000;295(1-2):107-27. PMID:10767398 
  66. Adenovirus endopeptidase hydrolyses human squamous cell carcinoma antigens in vitro but not ex vivo. Virology. 2000;268(1):141-6. PMID:10683336 
  67. Co-expression of the squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 in normal adult human tissues and squamous cell carcinomas. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48(1):113-22. PMID:10653592 
  68. An 18q- syndrome breakpoint resides between the duplicated serpins SCCA1 and SCCA2 and arises via a cryptic rearrangement with satellite III DNA. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8(1):87-92. PMID:9887335 
  69. A murine ortholog of the human serpin SCCA2 maps to chromosome 1 and inhibits chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases. Genomics. 1998;54(2):297-306. PMID:9828132 
  70. The reactive site loop of the serpin SCCA1 is essential for cysteine proteinase inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(23):13465-70. PMCID:PMC24842  PMID:9811823 
  71. Delineation of the breakpoint at 18q21.1 in a cell line (Karpas1106) derived from mediastinal B-cell lymphoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple YAC clones. Int J Cancer. 1998;78(1):100-5. PMID:9724100 
  72. Structure and sequence of human M/NEI (monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor), an Ov-serpin family gene. Gene. 1998;213(1-2):179-87. PMID:9630619 
  73. Gene expression in activated brain microglia: identification of a proteinase inhibitor that increases microglial cell number. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;56(1-2):99-107. PMID:9602079 
  74. Cross-class inhibition of the cysteine proteinases cathepsins K, L, and S by the serpin squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1: a kinetic analysis. Biochemistry. 1998;37(15):5258-66. PMID:9548757 
  75. Cytoplasmic antiproteinase 2 (PI8) and bomapin (PI10) map to the serpin cluster at 18q21.3. Genomics. 1997;43(3):321-8. PMID:9268635 
  76. Rapid detection of lymphoma-specific translocations in interphase nuclei of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Leukemia. 1997;11 Suppl 3:291-3. PMID:9209369 
  77. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell chymase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(3):1849-55. PMID:8999871 
  78. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 18 Mapping. Boston, Massachusetts, October 7-9, 1996. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1996;75(2-3):111-31. PMID:9040777 
  79. Translocations and amplification of the BCL2 gene are detected in interphase nuclei of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by in situ hybridization with yeast artificial chromosome clones. Blood. 1995;86(4):1481-6. PMID:7632955 
  80. Human macrophage metalloelastase. Genomic organization, chromosomal location, gene linkage, and tissue-specific expression. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(24):14568-75. PMID:7782320 
  81. A serine proteinase inhibitor locus at 18q21.3 contains a tandem duplication of the human squamous cell carcinoma antigen gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92(8):3147-51. PMCID:PMC42122  PMID:7724531 
  82. The 18q- syndrome: analysis of chromosomes by bivariate flow karyotyping and the PCR reveals a successive set of deletion breakpoints within 18q21.2-q22.2. Am J Hum Genet. 1995;56(4):926-37. PMCID:PMC1801205  PMID:7717403 
  83. Analysis of randomly amplified flow-sorted chromosomes using the polymerase chain reaction. Genomics. 1995;26(2):364-71. PMID:7601463 
  84. Report of the Third International Workshop on human chromosome 18 mapping 1995. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;71(2):106-17. PMID:7656577 
  85. Integration of the 1993-94 Généthon genetic linkage map for chromosome 18 with the physical map using a somatic cell hybrid mapping panel. Genomics. 1995;25(1):329-30. PMID:7774947 
  86. Integration of 28 STSs into the physical map of human chromosome 18. Genomics. 1994;24(3):612-3. PMID:7713522 
  87. (CA) repeat polymorphism in the chromosome 18 encoded dystrophin-like protein. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3(5):841. PMID:8081380 
  88. The DCC gene: structural analysis and mutations in colorectal carcinomas. Genomics. 1994;19(3):525-31. PMID:8188295 
  89. Report and abstracts of the second international workshop on human chromosome 18 mapping. Doorwerth, the Netherlands, July 19-20, 1993. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1994;65(3):142-65. PMID:8222751 
  90. Regional localization of 56 new human chromosome 18-specific yeast artificial chromosomes. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1994;65(1-2):136-9. PMID:8404067 
  91. Isolating vector-insert junctions from yeast artificial chromosomes. PCR Methods Appl. 1993;3(3):141-50. PMID:8118395 
  92. Genetic transfer and expression of reconstructed yeast artificial chromosomes containing normal and translocated BCL2 proto-oncogenes. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13(9):5469-78. PMCID:PMC360259  PMID:8355694 
  93. Acute mixed-lineage leukemia t(4;11)(q21;q23) generates an MLL-AF4 fusion product. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90(16):7884-8. PMCID:PMC47247  PMID:7689231 
  94. Reassignment of pEFD70.3 (D18S23) to human chromosome band 21q22.2 (D21S412) by physical mapping. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2(3):331. PMID:8499926 
  95. pMCT108.2 is a chimaeric clone which physically maps to human chromosome bands 9q33 (D9S203) and 18q21.1 (D18S24). Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2(3):332. PMID:8499927 
  96. The human mast cell chymase gene (CMA1): mapping to the cathepsin G/granzyme gene cluster and lineage-restricted expression. Genomics. 1993;15(3):614-20. PMID:8468056 
  97. Chromosomal reassignment: YACs containing both YES1 and thymidylate synthase map to the short arm of chromosome 18. Genomics. 1993;15(2):442-5. PMID:8449516 
  98. STS map of genes and anonymous DNA fragments on human chromosome 18 using a panel of somatic cell hybrids. Genomics. 1993;15(2):387-91. PMID:8449504 
  99. Report of the first international workshop on human chromosome 18 mapping. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1993;63(2):78-96. PMID:8096808 
  100. Immunolocalization of the Bcl-2 protein within hematopoietic neoplasms. Blood. 1991;78(4):1062-8. PMID:1868240 
  101. Structure and expression of a cluster of human hematopoietic serine protease genes found on chromosome 14q11.2. J Biol Chem. 1991;266(10):6152-8. PMID:2007574 
  102. Yeast artificial chromosome cloning of a two-megabase-size contig within chromosomal band 18q21 establishes physical linkage between BCL2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2. Genomics. 1991;9(2):219-28. PMID:2004771 
  103. Meiotic recombination between yeast artificial chromosomes yields a single clone containing the entire BCL2 protooncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87(24):9913-7. PMCID:PMC55284  PMID:2263642 
  104. Use of yeast artificial chromosome clones for mapping and walking within human chromosome segment 18q21.3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86(19):7485-9. PMCID:PMC298089  PMID:2678105 
  105. Isolation of single-copy human genes from a library of yeast artificial chromosome clones. Science. 1989;244(4910):1348-51. PMID:2544027 
  106. Enterically induced regulation of systemic immune responses. II. Suppression of proliferating T cells by an Lyt-1+, 2- T effector cell. J Immunol. 1983;131(6):2656-61. PMID:6196395 
  107. Enterically induced regulation of systemic immune responses. I. Lymphoproliferative responses in mice suppressed by ingested antigen. J Immunol. 1983;131(6):2651-5. PMID:6196394 
  108. Specifically induced suppression of T cell and NK-like cytolytic activity by ingested soluble antigens. Cell Immunol. 1983;80(1):115-29. PMID:6603272 
  109. Systemic antibody responses of different species following ingestion of soluble protein antigens. Dev Comp Immunol. 1982;6(4):737-46. PMID:7160515 
  110. Inhibition of spontaneous AKR leukemia by multiple inoculations of Corynebacterium parvum. Cancer. 1979;44(2):488-91. PMID:476565 
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