Schwartz, Alan L., Ph.D., M.D.  schwartz@wustl.edu

Professor of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology
Professor of Developmental Biology
Developmental BiologyHematology and Oncology

phone: (314) 454-6018

Education

  • B.A., Case Western Reserve University1970
  • Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University1974
  • M.D., Case Western Reserve University1976

Training

  • Research Fellow, University of Helsinki1972 - 1973
  • NIH Postdoctoral Fellow, Case Western Reserve University1974 - 1974
  • Fellow of the Medical Research Council of New Zealand, University of Auckland, National Women's Hospital1975 - 1976
  • Residency, Children's Hospital Medical Center1976 - 1978
  • Clinical Fellow in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School1977 - 1978
  • Fellow in Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Medical Center and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute1978 - 1979

Licensure and Board Certification

  • MA, Medical License1977
  • Diplomate of the American Board of Pediatrics1981
  • MO, Medical License1986

Honors

  • University Book Prize in Biology, Case Western Reserve University1970
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine1975
  • John L. Caughey, M.D. Award for Clinical Investigation, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine1975
  • Bronze Medal of the Royal Humane Society of New Zealand1976
  • Upjohn Award in Clinical Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine1976
  • George von L. Meyer Award, Children's Hospital Medical Center1977
  • Sidney Farber House Staff Prize, Children's Hospital Medical Center1978
  • David Abraham Fellowship in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology1979
  • Bushrod H. Campbell and Adah F. Hall Medical Foundation Fellow1980 - 1982
  • Outstanding Young Investigator, Boston Blood Club1981
  • John A. and George Hartford Foundation Fellow1982 - 1985
  • Society for Pediatric Research, Young Investigator Award1983
  • Established Investigator, American Heart Association1985 - 1990
  • Alumni Endowed Professor of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine1987 - 1998
  • Gold Metal Award, Hospital Association of Greater St. Louis1988
  • Teacher of the Year, Washington University School of Medicine1988
  • Basil O'Connor Award, March of Dimes1990 - 1995
  • Outstanding Clinical Teacher 1990-1991, St. Louis Children's Hospital1991
  • Distinguished Visiting Professor, University of Utrecht School of Medicine, Utrecht, The Netherlands1993 - 1998
  • E. Mead Johnson Award1993
  • Distinguished Service Teaching Award, Washington University School of Medicine1993
  • Who's Who in Midwest1994 - 2002
  • Distinguished Service Teaching Award, Washington University School of Medicine1994
  • Harriet B. Spoehrer Professor of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine1995 - 2016
  • Who's Who in American Education1995 - Pres
  • United States Patent 5,474,766 for Methods and Compositions for Inhibition of Hepatic Clearance of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator, Docket Number C00108/059407 (issued December 12)1995
  • Who's Who in America1996 - 2010
  • Fellows Award, Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation1996
  • United States Patent 5,650,391 for Methods and Compositions for Inhibition of Hepatic Clearance of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (issued July 22)1997
  • Elected to National Academy of Medicine (Formally Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.)1999 - Pres
  • Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare2001 - Pres
  • Best Doctors in America2003 - 2010
  • American Men and Women of Science2004
  • Who's Who Among America's Teachers2004 - Pres
  • Distinguished Faculty Award, Washington University School of Medicine2006
  • Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science2007 - Pres
  • Best Doctors in America2007 - 2010
  • Fellows Award, Academy of Science – St. Louis2010
  • Doctor Medicinae et Chirurgiae Honoris Causa, University of Helsinki, Finland (Honorary Degree)2010

Recent Publications view all (229)


Publication Co-Authors

  1. Thomas JJ, Abed M, Heuberger J, Novak R, Zohar Y, Beltran Lopez AP, Trausch-Azar JS, Ilagan MX, Benhamou D, Dittmar G, Kopan R, Birchmeier W, Schwartz AL, Orian A. RNF4-Dependent Oncogene Activation by Protein Stabilization. Cell Rep. 2016;16(12):3388-400. PMID:27653698  
  2. Trausch-Azar JS, Abed M, Orian A, Schwartz AL. Isoform-specific SCF(Fbw7) ubiquitination mediates differential regulation of PGC-1α. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230(4):842-52. doi:10.1002/jcp.24812  PMCID:PMC4596538  PMID:25204433  
  3. Schwartz AL. American Pediatric Society 2014 presidential address: the thrill of discovery (and other foundations of biomedical research). Pediatr Res. 2014;76(3):316-20. doi:10.1038/pr.2014.81  PMID:24937547  
  4. Schwartz AL. Commentary: physician-scientist attrition: stemming the tide through national networks for training and development. Acad Med. 2011;86(9):1071-2. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318224fd75  PMID:21865903  
  5. Schwartz AL. The Future of Children's Health in the Genomic Era. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2011;2(3):e0053. doi:10.5041/RMMJ.10053  PMCID:PMC3678796  PMID:23908811  
  6. Trausch-Azar J, Leone TC, Kelly DP, Schwartz AL. Ubiquitin proteasome-dependent degradation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1{alpha} via the N-terminal pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(51):40192-200. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.131615  PMCID:PMC3001001  PMID:20713359  
  7. Song H, Li Y, Lee J, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by inducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Cancer Res. 2009;69(3):879-86. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3379  PMCID:PMC2633434  PMID:19176371  
  8. Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Targeting proteins for destruction by the ubiquitin system: implications for human pathobiology. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;49:73-96. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.051208.165340  PMID:18834306  
  9. Sadeh R, Breitschopf K, Bercovich B, Zoabi M, Kravtsova-Ivantsiv Y, Kornitzer D, Schwartz A, Ciechanover A. The N-terminal domain of MyoD is necessary and sufficient for its nuclear localization-dependent degradation by the ubiquitin system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(41):15690-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0808373105  PMCID:PMC2560994  PMID:18836078  
  10. Lingbeck JM, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. In vivo interactions of MyoD, Id1, and E2A proteins determined by acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer. FASEB J. 2008;22(6):1694-701. doi:10.1096/fj.07-095000  PMID:18198216  
  11. Sun L, Trausch-Azar JS, Muglia LJ, Schwartz AL. Glucocorticoids differentially regulate degradation of MyoD and Id1 by N-terminal ubiquitination to promote muscle protein catabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(9):3339-44. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800165105  PMCID:PMC2265166  PMID:18296633  
  12. Knisely JM, Li Y, Griffith JM, Geuze HJ, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Slow endocytosis of the LDL receptor-related protein 1B: implications for a novel cytoplasmic tail conformation. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313(15):3298-307. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.05.026  PMCID:PMC2002472  PMID:17658514  
  13. Sun L, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. E2A protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is stage-dependent during muscle differentiation. Oncogene. 2007;26(3):441-8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209793  PMID:16909127  
  14. Lingbeck JM, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. E12 and E47 modulate cellular localization and proteasome-mediated degradation of MyoD and Id1. Oncogene. 2005;24(42):6376-84. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208789  PMID:16007194  
  15. Sun L, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation, intracellular localization, and protein synthesis of MyoD and Id1 during muscle differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(28):26448-56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M500373200  PMID:15888449  
  16. McCormick LM, Urade R, Arakaki Y, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Independent and cooperative roles of N-glycans and molecular chaperones in the folding and disulfide bond formation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein. Biochemistry. 2005;44(15):5794-803. doi:10.1021/bi047652a  PMID:15823038  
  17. Li Y, Lu W, He X, Schwartz AL, Bu G. LRP6 expression promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by altering beta-catenin subcellular distribution. Oncogene. 2004;23(56):9129-35. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208123  PMID:15516984  
  18. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin system: pathogenesis of human diseases and drug targeting. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1695(1-3):3-17. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.09.018  PMID:15571805  
  19. Ben-Saadon R, Fajerman I, Ziv T, Hellman U, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. The tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) and the human papillomavirus oncoprotein-58 E7 are naturally occurring lysine-less proteins that are degraded by the ubiquitin system. Direct evidence for ubiquitination at the N-terminal residue. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(40):41414-21. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407201200  PMID:15254040  
  20. Trausch-Azar JS, Lingbeck J, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Ubiquitin-Proteasome-mediated degradation of Id1 is modulated by MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(31):32614-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M403794200  PMID:15163661  
  21. Li Y, Lu W, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Degradation of the LDL receptor class 2 mutants is mediated by a proteasome-dependent pathway. J Lipid Res. 2004;45(6):1084-91. doi:10.1194/jlr.M300482-JLR200  PMID:14993243  
  22. Fajerman I, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Degradation of the Id2 developmental regulator: targeting via N-terminal ubiquitination. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314(2):505-12. PMID:14733935  
  23. Lingbeck JM, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Determinants of nuclear and cytoplasmic ubiquitin-mediated degradation of MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(3):1817-23. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208815200  PMID:12397066  
  24. Narita M, Holtzman DM, Fagan AM, LaDu MJ, Yu L, Han X, Gross RW, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Cellular catabolism of lipid poor apolipoprotein E via cell surface LDL receptor-related protein. J Biochem. 2002;132(5):743-9. PMID:12417024  
  25. Li Y, Knisely JM, Lu W, McCormick LM, Wang J, Henkin J, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1B impairs urokinase receptor regeneration on the cell surface and inhibits cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(44):42366-71. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207705200  PMID:12194987  
  26. Melman L, Geuze HJ, Li Y, McCormick LM, Van Kerkhof P, Strous GJ, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Proteasome regulates the delivery of LDL receptor-related protein into the degradation pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13(9):3325-35. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-03-0152  PMCID:PMC124162  PMID:12221136  
  27. Li Y, Lu W, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Receptor-associated protein facilitates proper folding and maturation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and its class 2 mutants. Biochemistry. 2002;41(15):4921-8. PMID:11939787  
  28. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular proteins in health and disease. Hepatology. 2002;35(1):3-6. doi:10.1053/jhep.2002.30316  PMID:11786953  
  29. Liu CX, Li Y, Obermoeller-McCormick LM, Schwartz AL, Bu G. The putative tumor suppressor LRP1B, a novel member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, exhibits both overlapping and distinct properties with the LDL receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(31):28889-96. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102727200  PMID:11384978  
  30. Floyd ZE, Trausch-Azar JS, Reinstein E, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(25):22468-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009388200  PMID:11309375  
  31. Schwartz AL, Mori M, Gao R, Nail LM, King ME. Exercise reduces daily fatigue in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(5):718-23. PMID:11323538  
  32. Obermoeller-McCormick LM, Li Y, Osaka H, FitzGerald DJ, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Dissection of receptor folding and ligand-binding property with functional minireceptors of LDL receptor-related protein. J Cell Sci. 2001;114(Pt 5):899-908. PMID:11181173  
  33. Ciechanover A, Gonen H, Bercovich B, Cohen S, Fajerman I, Israël A, Mercurio F, Kahana C, Schwartz AL, Iwai K, Orian A. Mechanisms of ubiquitin-mediated, limited processing of the NF-kappaB1 precursor protein p105. Biochimie. 2001;83(3-4):341-9. PMID:11295495  
  34. Reinstein E, Scheffner M, Oren M, Ciechanover A, Schwartz A. Degradation of the E7 human papillomavirus oncoprotein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system: targeting via ubiquitination of the N-terminal residue. Oncogene. 2000;19(51):5944-50. PMID:11127826  
  35. Orian A, Gonen H, Bercovich B, Fajerman I, Eytan E, Israël A, Mercurio F, Iwai K, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. SCF(beta)(-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase-mediated processing of NF-kappaB p105 requires phosphorylation of its C-terminus by IkappaB kinase. EMBO J. 2000;19(11):2580-91. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.11.2580  PMCID:PMC212749  PMID:10835356  
  36. Ciechanover A, Orian A, Schwartz AL. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis: biological regulation via destruction. Bioessays. 2000;22(5):442-51. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(200005)22:5<442::AID-BIES6>3.0.CO;2-Q  PMID:10797484  
  37. Ho G, Narita M, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. Recombinant full-length tissue factor pathway inhibitor fails to bind to the cell surface: implications for catabolism in vitro and in vivo. Blood. 2000;95(6):1973-8. PMID:10706863  
  38. Ciechanover A, Orian A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway: mode of action and clinical implications. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2000;34:40-51. PMID:10762014  
  39. Savonen R, Obermoeller LM, Trausch-Azar JS, Schwartz AL, Bu G. The carboxyl-terminal domain of receptor-associated protein facilitates proper folding and trafficking of the very low density lipoprotein receptor by interaction with the three amino-terminal ligand-binding repeats of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274(36):25877-82. PMID:10464330  
  40. Orian A, Schwartz AL, Israël A, Whiteside S, Kahana C, Ciechanover A. Structural motifs involved in ubiquitin-mediated processing of the NF-kappaB precursor p105: roles of the glycine-rich region and a downstream ubiquitination domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19(5):3664-73. PMCID:PMC84174  PMID:10207090  
  41. Govers R, ten Broeke T, van Kerkhof P, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Identification of a novel ubiquitin conjugation motif, required for ligand-induced internalization of the growth hormone receptor. EMBO J. 1999;18(1):28-36. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.1.28  PMCID:PMC1171099  PMID:9878047  
  42. Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and pathogenesis of human diseases. Annu Rev Med. 1999;50:57-74. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.50.1.57  PMID:10073263  
  43. Obermoeller LM, Chen Z, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Ca2+ and receptor-associated protein are independently required for proper folding and disulfide bond formation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(35):22374-81. PMID:9712858  
  44. Gross-Mesilaty S, Reinstein E, Bercovich B, Tobias KE, Schwartz AL, Kahana C, Ciechanover A. Basal and human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein-induced degradation of Myc proteins by the ubiquitin pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(14):8058-63. PMCID:PMC20928  PMID:9653139  
  45. Bu G, Schwartz AL. RAP, a novel type of ER chaperone. Trends Cell Biol. 1998;8(7):272-6. PMID:9714598  
  46. Govers R, van Kerkhof P, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Di-leucine-mediated internalization of ligand by a truncated growth hormone receptor is independent of the ubiquitin conjugation system. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(26):16426-33. PMID:9632708  
  47. Bu G, Sun Y, Schwartz AL, Holtzman DM. Nerve growth factor induces rapid increases in functional cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(21):13359-65. PMID:9582384  
  48. Frazier S, Hyman D, Altschuler S. The changing health care environment: implications for residency training. Pediatrics. 1998;101(4 Pt 2):795-803; discussion 803-4. PMID:9544185  
  49. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: the complexity and myriad functions of proteins death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(6):2727-30. PMCID:PMC34259  PMID:9501156  
  50. Narita M, Rudolph AE, Miletich JP, Schwartz AL. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) mediates clearance of coagulation factor Xa in vivo. Blood. 1998;91(2):555-60. PMID:9427709  
  51. Narita M, Holtzman DM, Schwartz AL, Bu G. Alpha2-macroglobulin complexes with and mediates the endocytosis of beta-amyloid peptide via cell surface low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Neurochem. 1997;69(5):1904-11. PMID:9349534  
  52. Mast AE, Higuchi DA, Huang ZF, Warshawsky I, Schwartz AL, Broze GJ Jr. Glypican-3 is a binding protein on the HepG2 cell surface for tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Biochem J. 1997;327 ( Pt 2):577-83. PMCID:PMC1218832  PMID:9359432  
  53. Schwartz AL, Broze GJ Jr. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1997;7(7):234-9. doi:10.1016/S1050-1738(97)00083-2  PMID:21235890  
  54. Govers R, van Kerkhof P, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Linkage of the ubiquitin-conjugating system and the endocytic pathway in ligand-induced internalization of the growth hormone receptor. EMBO J. 1997;16(16):4851-8. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.16.4851  PMCID:PMC1170120  PMID:9305627  
  55. Ho G, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. Role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the uptake and degradation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-coagulation factor Xa complexes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(27):16838-44. PMID:9201990  
  56. Schmid RA, Narita M, Boasquevisque CH, Ando K, Botney MD, Cooper JD, Schwartz AL, Patterson GA. Adenovirus mediated gene transfer into rat lung grafts at the time of harvest. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997;11(6):1023-8; discussion 1029. PMID:9237582  
  57. Stephen AG, Trausch-Azar JS, Handley-Gearhart PM, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Identification of a region within the ubiquitin-activating enzyme required for nuclear targeting and phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(16):10895-903. PMID:9099746  
  58. Bercovich B, Stancovski I, Mayer A, Blumenfeld N, Laszlo A, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain protein substrates in vitro requires the molecular chaperone Hsc70. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(14):9002-10. PMID:9083024  
  59. Narita M, Bu G, Holtzman DM, Schwartz AL. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, a multifunctional apolipoprotein E receptor, modulates hippocampal neurite development. J Neurochem. 1997;68(2):587-95. PMID:9003044  
  60. Strous GJ, van Kerkhof P, Govers R, Rotwein P, Schwartz AL. Growth hormone-induced signal tranduction depends on an intact ubiquitin system. J Biol Chem. 1997;272(1):40-3. PMID:8995223  
  61. Warshawsky I, Herz J, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein can function independently from heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(42):25873-9. PMID:8824219  
  62. Strous GJ, van Kerkhof P, Govers R, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin conjugation system is required for ligand-induced endocytosis and degradation of the growth hormone receptor. EMBO J. 1996;15(15):3806-12. PMCID:PMC452061  PMID:8670885  
  63. Stephen AG, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 is phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus in a cell cycle-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(26):15608-14. PMID:8663123  
  64. Moser FG, Miller ST, Bello JA, Pegelow CH, Zimmerman RA, Wang WC, Ohene-Frempong K, Schwartz A, Vichinsky EP, Gallagher D, Kinney TR. The spectrum of brain MR abnormalities in sickle-cell disease: a report from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996;17(5):965-72. PMID:8733975  
  65. Ho G, Toomey JR, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of coagulation factor Xa requires cell surface-bound tissue factor pathway inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(16):9497-502. PMID:8621621  
  66. Warshawsky I, Schwartz AL. The 39-kDa protein regulates LRP activity in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 1996;69(2):156-65. PMID:8907616  
  67. Gonen H, Stancovski I, Shkedy D, Hadari T, Bercovich B, Bengal E, Mesilati S, Abu-Hatoum O, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Isolation, characterization, and partial purification of a novel ubiquitin-protein ligase, E3. Targeting of protein substrates via multiple and distinct recognition signals and conjugating enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1996;271(1):302-10. PMID:8550577  
  68. Gonen H, Dickman D, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Protein synthesis elongation factor EF-1 alpha is an isopeptidase essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain proteolytic substrates. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;389:209-19. PMID:8861013  
  69. Stancovski I, Gonen H, Orian A, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Degradation of the proto-oncogene product c-Fos by the ubiquitin proteolytic system in vivo and in vitro: identification and characterization of the conjugating enzymes. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15(12):7106-16. PMCID:PMC230966  PMID:8524278  
  70. Schwartz AL. Receptor cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis. Pediatr Res. 1995;38(6):835-43. doi:10.1203/00006450-199512000-00003  PMID:8618782  
  71. Narita M, Bu G, Olins GM, Higuchi DA, Herz J, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. Two receptor systems are involved in the plasma clearance of tissue factor pathway inhibitor in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(42):24800-4. PMID:7559599  
  72. Holtzman DM, Pitas RE, Kilbridge J, Nathan B, Mahley RW, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates apolipoprotein E-dependent neurite outgrowth in a central nervous system-derived neuronal cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92(21):9480-4. PMCID:PMC40825  PMID:7568158  
  73. Nielsen MS, Nykjaer A, Warshawsky I, Schwartz AL, Gliemann J. Analysis of ligand binding to the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Evidence that lipoprotein lipase and the carboxyl-terminal domain of the receptor-associated protein bind to the same site. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(40):23713-9. PMID:7559542  
  74. Orian A, Whiteside S, Israël A, Stancovski I, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Ubiquitin-mediated processing of NF-kappa B transcriptional activator precursor p105. Reconstitution of a cell-free system and identification of the ubiquitin-carrier protein, E2, and a novel ubiquitin-protein ligase, E3, involved in conjugation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(37):21707-14. PMID:7665588  
  75. Vettenranta K, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Binding and endocytosis of 39 kDa protein by MDBK cells. J Cell Physiol. 1995;164(2):441-7. doi:10.1002/jcp.1041640225  PMID:7542665  
  76. Narita M, Bu G, Herz J, Schwartz AL. Two receptor systems are involved in the plasma clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1995;96(2):1164-8. doi:10.1172/JCI118105  PMCID:PMC185308  PMID:7635954  
  77. Bu G, Geuze HJ, Strous GJ, Schwartz AL. 39 kDa receptor-associated protein is an ER resident protein and molecular chaperone for LDL receptor-related protein. EMBO J. 1995;14(10):2269-80. PMCID:PMC398334  PMID:7774585  
  78. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Mast A, Saffitz JE, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. The carboxy terminus of tissue factor pathway inhibitor is required for interacting with hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1995;95(4):1773-81. doi:10.1172/JCI117855  PMCID:PMC295702  PMID:7706485  
  79. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Sites within the 39-kDa protein important for regulating ligand binding to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Biochemistry. 1995;34(10):3404-15. PMID:7533537  
  80. Handley-Gearhart PM, Stephen AG, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Human ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1. Indication of potential nuclear and cytoplasmic subpopulations using epitope-tagged cDNA constructs. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(52):33171-8. PMID:7528747  
  81. Handley-Gearhart PM, Trausch-Azar JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Rescue of the complex temperature-sensitive phenotype of Chinese hamster ovary E36ts20 cells by expression of the human ubiquitin-activating enzyme cDNA. Biochem J. 1994;304 ( Pt 3):1015-20. PMCID:PMC1137433  PMID:7818464  
  82. Bu G, Maksymovitch EA, Geuze H, Schwartz AL. Subcellular localization and endocytic function of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in human glioblastoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(47):29874-82. PMID:7961982  
  83. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Identification of domains on the 39-kDa protein that inhibit the binding of ligands to the low density lipoprotein receptor--related protein. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;737:514-7. PMID:7524434  
  84. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Schwartz AL. LRP and the receptor-mediated endocytosis of plasminogen activators. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;737:70-87. PMID:7944155  
  85. Gonen H, Smith CE, Siegel NR, Kahana C, Merrick WC, Chakraburtty K, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Protein synthesis elongation factor EF-1 alpha is essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain N alpha-acetylated proteins and may be substituted for by the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91(16):7648-52. PMCID:PMC44459  PMID:8052636  
  86. Bu G, Maksymovitch EA, Nerbonne JM, Schwartz AL. Expression and function of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) in mammalian central neurons. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(28):18521-8. PMID:7518435  
  87. Warshawsky I, Broze GJ Jr, Schwartz AL. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates the cellular degradation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91(14):6664-8. PMCID:PMC44263  PMID:7517557  
  88. Grenfell SJ, Trausch-Azar JS, Handley-Gearhart PM, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Nuclear localization of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, is cell-cycle-dependent. Biochem J. 1994;300 ( Pt 3):701-8. PMCID:PMC1138223  PMID:8010951  
  89. Bu G, Warshawsky I, Schwartz AL. Cellular receptors for the plasminogen activators. Blood. 1994;83(12):3427-36. PMID:8204869  
  90. Blumenfeld N, Gonen H, Mayer A, Smith CE, Siegel NR, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Purification and characterization of a novel species of ubiquitin-carrier protein, E2, that is involved in degradation of non-"N-end rule" protein substrates. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(13):9574-81. PMID:8144544  
  91. Strous GJ, van Kerkhof P, Verheijen C, Rossen JW, Liou W, Slot JW, Roelen CA, Schwartz AL. Expression of functional growth hormone receptor in a mouse L cell line infected with recombinant vaccinia virus. Exp Cell Res. 1994;211(2):353-9. doi:10.1006/excr.1994.1098  PMID:8143783  
  92. Schwartz AL. Quantitative cell biology. Science. 1994;263(5154):1782. doi:10.1126/science.263.5154.1782  PMID:17795389  
  93. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Binding analysis of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal regions of the 39-kDa protein to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269(5):3325-30. PMID:7508911  
  94. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway: mechanisms of recognition of the proteolytic substrate and involvement in the degradation of native cellular proteins. FASEB J. 1994;8(2):182-91. PMID:8119489  
  95. Iadonato SP, Bu G, Maksymovitch EA, Schwartz AL. Interaction of a 39 kDa protein with the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP) on rat hepatoma cells. Biochem J. 1993;296 ( Pt 3):867-75. PMCID:PMC1137774  PMID:8280086  
  96. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Schwartz AL. Identification of domains on the 39-kDa protein that inhibit the binding of ligands to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(29):22046-54. PMID:7691821  
  97. Warshawsky I, Bu G, Schwartz AL. 39-kD protein inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator clearance in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1993;92(2):937-44. doi:10.1172/JCI116669  PMCID:PMC294933  PMID:8349826  
  98. Bu G, Maksymovitch EA, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of tissue-type plasminogen activator by low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(17):13002-9. PMID:8389767  
  99. Trausch JS, Grenfell SJ, Handley-Gearhart PM, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Immunofluorescent localization of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, to the nucleus and cytoskeleton. Am J Physiol. 1993;264(1 Pt 1):C93-102. PMID:8430776  
  100. Underhill DM, Owensby DA, Morton PA, Schwartz AL. Endocytosis and lysosomal delivery of tissue plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 complexes in Hep G2 cells. Blood. 1992;80(11):2746-54. PMID:1333299  
  101. Pitt A, Mayorga LS, Stahl PD, Schwartz AL. Alterations in the protein composition of maturing phagosomes. J Clin Invest. 1992;90(5):1978-83. doi:10.1172/JCI116077  PMCID:PMC443261  PMID:1430221  
  102. Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Ubiquitin-mediated protein modification and degradation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992;7(5):463-8. doi:10.1165/ajrcmb/7.5.463  PMID:1329865  
  103. Bu G, Williams S, Strickland DK, Schwartz AL. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor is an hepatic receptor for tissue-type plasminogen activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(16):7427-31. PMCID:PMC49723  PMID:1502154  
  104. Bu G, Morton PA, Schwartz AL. Identification and partial characterization by chemical cross-linking of a binding protein for tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) on rat hepatoma cells. A plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1-independent t-PA receptor. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(22):15595-602. PMID:1322401  
  105. Lenk SE, Dunn WA Jr, Trausch JS, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, is associated with maturation of autophagic vacuoles. J Cell Biol. 1992;118(2):301-8. PMCID:PMC2290057  PMID:1321157  
  106. Schwartz AL, Trausch JS, Ciechanover A, Slot JW, Geuze H. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 in HepG2 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(12):5542-6. PMCID:PMC49328  PMID:1376922  
  107. Nishitani H, Goto H, Kaneda S, Yamao F, Seno T, Handley P, Schwartz AL, Nishimoto T. tsBN75 and tsBN423, temperature-sensitive x-linked mutants of the BHK21 cell line, can be complemented by the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;184(2):1015-21. PMID:1575720  
  108. Schwartz AL, Brandt RA, Geuze H, Ciechanover A. Stress-induced alterations in autophagic pathway: relationship to ubiquitin system. Am J Physiol. 1992;262(4 Pt 1):C1031-8. PMID:1314483  
  109. Pitt A, Mayorga LS, Schwartz AL, Stahl PD. Transport of phagosomal components to an endosomal compartment. J Biol Chem. 1992;267(1):126-32. PMID:1730578  
  110. Pitt A, Mayorga LS, Schwartz AL, Stahl PD. Assays for phagosome-endosome fusion and phagosome protein recycling. Methods Enzymol. 1992;219:21-31. PMID:1487994  
  111. Gonen H, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Purification and characterization of a novel protein that is required for degradation of N-alpha-acetylated proteins by the ubiquitin system. J Biol Chem. 1991;266(29):19221-31. PMID:1655778  
  112. Pitt A, Schwartz AL. Reconstitution of human hepatoma endosome-endosome fusion in vitro: potential roles for an endoprotease and a phosphoprotein phosphatase. Eur J Cell Biol. 1991;55(2):328-35. PMID:1657609  
  113. Stoorvogel W, Strous GJ, Geuze HJ, Oorschot V, Schwartz AL. Late endosomes derive from early endosomes by maturation. Cell. 1991;65(3):417-27. PMID:1850321  
  114. Pitt A, Schwartz AL. Identification of an endosome-specific antigen. Exp Cell Res. 1991;194(1):128-34. PMID:1849826  
  115. Lang LM, Beyer EC, Schwartz AL, Gitlin JD. Molecular cloning of a rat uterine gap junction protein and analysis of gene expression during gestation. Am J Physiol. 1991;260(5 Pt 1):E787-93. PMID:1852114  
  116. Stoorvogel W, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ, Fallon RJ. A pool of intracellular phosphorylated asialoglycoprotein receptors which is not involved in endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1991;266(9):5438-44. PMID:2005089  
  117. Owensby DA, Morton PA, Wun TC, Schwartz AL. Binding of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 to extracellular matrix of Hep G2 cells. Evidence that the binding protein is vitronectin. J Biol Chem. 1991;266(7):4334-40. PMID:1705551  
  118. Gropper R, Brandt RA, Elias S, Bearer CF, Mayer A, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, is required for stress-induced lysosomal degradation of cellular proteins. J Biol Chem. 1991;266(6):3602-10. PMID:1847380  
  119. Reif JS, Schwartz AL, Fallon RJ. Low concentrations of primaquine inhibit degradation but not receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid by HepG2 cells. Exp Cell Res. 1991;192(2):581-6. PMID:1703087  
  120. Ciechanover A, Gropper R, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme is required for lysosomal degradation of cellular proteins under stress. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1991;50(4-6):321-32. PMID:1801698  
  121. Ciechanover A, DiGiuseppe JA, Bercovich B, Orian A, Richter JD, Schwartz AL, Brodeur GM. Degradation of nuclear oncoproteins by the ubiquitin system in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88(1):139-43. PMCID:PMC50765  PMID:1846034  
  122. Ciechanover A, DiGiuseppe JA, Schwartz AL, Brodeur GM. Degradation of MYCN oncoprotein by the ubiquitin system. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991;366:37-43. PMID:1648744  
  123. Handley PM, Mueckler M, Siegel NR, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Molecular cloning, sequence, and tissue distribution of the human ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88(1):258-62. PMCID:PMC50789  PMID:1986373  
  124. Stoorvogel W, Strous GJ, Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. Trafficking of the transferrin receptor. Targeted Diagn Ther. 1991;4:267-304. PMID:1797159  
  125. Schwartz AL. Trafficking of asialoglycoproteins and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Targeted Diagn Ther. 1991;4:3-39. PMID:1797161  
  126. van der Ende A, du Maine A, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Modulation of transferrin-receptor activity and recycling after induced differentiation of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. Biochem J. 1990;270(2):451-7. PMCID:PMC1131743  PMID:2400396  
  127. Morton PA, Owensby DA, Wun TC, Billadello JJ, Schwartz AL. Identification of determinants involved in binding of tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 complexes to HepG2 cells. J Biol Chem. 1990;265(24):14093-9. PMID:2167306  
  128. Harding CV, Unanue ER, Slot JW, Schwartz AL, Geuze HJ. Functional and ultrastructural evidence for intracellular formation of major histocompatibility complex class II-peptide complexes during antigen processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87(14):5553-7. PMCID:PMC54363  PMID:2371288  
  129. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL. Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 1990;186(2):306-16. PMID:2153559  
  130. Schwartz AL. Cell biology of intracellular protein trafficking. Annu Rev Immunol. 1990;8:195-229. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy.08.040190.001211  PMID:2160830  
  131. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. How are substrates recognized by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system? Trends Biochem Sci. 1989;14(12):483-8. PMID:2696178  
  132. Perlmutter DH, Schlesinger MJ, Pierce JA, Punsal PI, Schwartz AL. Synthesis of stress proteins is increased in individuals with homozygous PiZZ alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and liver disease. J Clin Invest. 1989;84(5):1555-61. doi:10.1172/JCI114332  PMCID:PMC304021  PMID:2553776  
  133. Owensby DA, Morton PA, Schwartz AL. Interactions between tissue-type plasminogen activator and extracellular matrix-associated plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. J Biol Chem. 1989;264(30):18180-7. PMID:2553701  
  134. Levin MS, Pitt AJ, Schwartz AL, Edwards PA, Gordon JI. Developmental changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid transport in human and rat fetal and neonatal livers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1003(3):293-300. PMID:2472835  
  135. Mayer A, Siegel NR, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Degradation of proteins with acetylated amino termini by the ubiquitin system. Science. 1989;244(4911):1480-3. PMID:2544030  
  136. Stoorvogel W, Geuze HJ, Griffith JM, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Relations between the intracellular pathways of the receptors for transferrin, asialoglycoprotein, and mannose 6-phosphate in human hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1989;108(6):2137-48. PMCID:PMC2115624  PMID:2544602  
  137. Morton PA, Owensby DA, Sobel BE, Schwartz AL. Catabolism of tissue-type plasminogen activator by the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Modulation by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. J Biol Chem. 1989;264(13):7228-35. PMID:2540181  
  138. van der Ende A, du Maine A, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Effect of ATP depletion and temperature on the transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron by BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. Biochem J. 1989;259(3):685-92. PMCID:PMC1138573  PMID:2730581  
  139. Fallon RJ, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated delivery of drugs to hepatocytes Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 1989;4(1):49-63. 
  140. Ley TJ, Maloney KA, Gordon JI, Schwartz AL. Globin gene expression in erythroid human fetal liver cells. J Clin Invest. 1989;83(3):1032-8. doi:10.1172/JCI113944  PMCID:PMC303780  PMID:2921315  
  141. Mayer A, Gropper R, Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A. Purification, characterization, and rapid inactivation of thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme from the mammalian cell cycle mutant ts85. J Biol Chem. 1989;264(4):2060-8. PMID:2914892  
  142. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL. The ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway: specificity of recognition of the proteolytic substrates. Revis Biol Celular. 1989;20:217-34. PMID:2561543  
  143. Owensby DA, Morton PA, Schwartz AL. Quantitative evaluation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Methods Cell Biol. 1989;32:305-28. PMID:2558276  
  144. Strous GJ, van Kerkhof P, Dekker J, Schwartz AL. Metalloendoprotease inhibitors block protein synthesis, intracellular transport, and endocytosis in hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1988;263(34):18197-204. PMID:2848028  
  145. Turkewitz AP, Schwartz AL, Harrison SC. A pH-dependent reversible conformational transition of the human transferrin receptor leads to self-association. J Biol Chem. 1988;263(31):16309-15. PMID:3182794  
  146. Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A, Brandt RA, Geuze HJ. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of ubiquitin in hepatoma cells. EMBO J. 1988;7(10):2961-6. PMCID:PMC454677  PMID:2846272  
  147. Fallon RJ, Schwartz AL. Asialoglycoprotein receptor phosphorylation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatoma cells. Effect of phorbol esters. J Biol Chem. 1988;263(26):13159-66. PMID:3166456  
  148. Owensby DA, Sobel BE, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of tissue-type plasminogen activator by the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. J Biol Chem. 1988;263(22):10587-94. PMID:2839497  
  149. Turkewitz AP, Amatruda JF, Borhani D, Harrison SC, Schwartz AL. A high yield purification of the human transferrin receptor and properties of its major extracellular fragment. J Biol Chem. 1988;263(17):8318-25. PMID:3372526  
  150. Perlmutter DH, Schlesinger MJ, Pierce JA, Campbell EJ, Rothbaum RJ, Schwartz AL. Induction of the stress response in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1988;101:33-41. PMID:2855901  
  151. Strous GJ, van Kerkhof P, van Bokhoven A, Schwartz AL, de Pont JJ. Effect of primaquine on the topology of Na,K-ATPase and the receptor for asialoglycoproteins. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988;268B:437-42. PMID:2851823  
  152. Strous GJ, van Kerkhof P, Fallon RJ, Schwartz AL. Golgi galactosyltransferase contains serine-linked phosphate. Eur J Biochem. 1987;169(2):307-11. PMID:3121312  
  153. Fallon RJ, Schwartz AL. Mechanism of the phorbol ester-mediated redistribution of asialoglycoprotein receptor: selective effects on receptor recycling pathways in Hep G2 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1987;32(3):348-55. PMID:3478583  
  154. van der Ende A, du Maine A, Simmons CF, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron. J Biol Chem. 1987;262(18):8910-6. PMID:3597399  
  155. Zijderhand-Bleekemolen JE, Schwartz AL, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Geuze HJ. Ligand- and weak base-induced redistribution of asialoglycoprotein receptors in hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1987;104(6):1647-54. PMCID:PMC2114494  PMID:3034918  
  156. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Schwartz AL. Membranes of sorting organelles display lateral heterogeneity in receptor distribution. J Cell Biol. 1987;104(6):1715-23. PMCID:PMC2114492  PMID:3034919  
  157. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Yanagibashi K, McCracken JA, Schwartz AL, Hall PF. Immunogold cytochemistry of cytochromes P-450 in porcine adrenal cortex. Two enzymes (side-chain cleavage and 11 beta-hydroxylase) are co-localized in the same mitochondria. Histochemistry. 1987;86(6):551-7. PMID:3610669  
  158. Schwartz AL, Strous GJ, Geuze H. Receptor mediated endocytosis: intracellular pathways for receptor and ligand. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;249:77-86. PMID:2823293  
  159. Fallon RJ, Schwartz AL. Regulation by phorbol esters of asialoglycoprotein and transferrin receptor distribution and ligand affinity in a hepatoma cell line. J Biol Chem. 1986;261(32):15081-9. PMID:3021765  
  160. Schwartz AL, Ciechanover A, Merritt S, Turkewitz A. Antibody-induced receptor loss. Different fates for asialoglycoproteins and the asialoglycoprotein receptor in HepG2 cells. J Biol Chem. 1986;261(32):15225-32. PMID:3021767  
  161. Stahl P, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis. J Clin Invest. 1986;77(3):657-62. doi:10.1172/JCI112359  PMCID:PMC423448  PMID:2869052  
  162. Helmy S, Porter-Jordan K, Dawidowicz EA, Pilch P, Schwartz AL, Fine RE. Separation of endocytic from exocytic coated vesicles using a novel cholinesterase mediated density shift technique. Cell. 1986;44(3):497-506. PMID:2867830  
  163. Geuze HJ, van der Donk HA, Simmons CF, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver parenchymal cells. Int Rev Exp Pathol. 1986;29:113-71. PMID:3023254  
  164. Strous GJ, Du Maine A, Zijderhand-Bleekemolen JE, Slot JW, Schwartz AL. Effect of lysosomotropic amines on the secretory pathway and on the recycling of the asialoglycoprotein receptor in human hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1985;101(2):531-9. PMCID:PMC2113684  PMID:2991301  
  165. Breitfeld PP, Schwartz AL. Cell-free synthesis and co-translational processing of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor. Eur J Biochem. 1985;150(2):409-14. PMID:4018091  
  166. Schwartz AL, Strous GJ, Slot JW, Geuze HJ. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of acidic intracellular compartments in hepatoma cells. EMBO J. 1985;4(4):899-904. PMCID:PMC554277  PMID:2990909  
  167. Schwartz AL, Hollingdale MR. Primaquine and lysosomotropic amines inhibit malaria sporozoite entry into human liver cells. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1985;14(3):305-11. PMID:3887157  
  168. Hollingdale MR, Collins WE, Campbell CC, Schwartz AL. In vitro culture of two populations (dividing and nondividing) of exoerythrocytic parasites of Plasmodium vivax. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985;34(2):216-22. PMID:2984950  
  169. Spiess M, Schwartz AL, Lodish HF. Sequence of human asialoglycoprotein receptor cDNA. An internal signal sequence for membrane insertion. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(4):1979-82. PMID:2982798  
  170. Markwell MA, Portner A, Schwartz AL. An alternative route of infection for viruses: entry by means of the asialoglycoprotein receptor of a Sendai virus mutant lacking its attachment protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82(4):978-82. PMCID:PMC397176  PMID:2983337  
  171. Zavala F, Hollingdale MR, Schwartz AL, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V. Immunoradiometric assay to measure the in vitro penetration of sporozoites of malaria parasites into hepatoma cells. J Immunol. 1985;134(2):1202-5. PMID:2981261  
  172. Fallon RJ, Schwartz AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and targeted drug delivery. Hepatology. 1985;5(5):899-901. PMID:2993150  
  173. Breitfeld PP, Simmons CF Jr, Strous GJ, Geuze HJ, Schwartz AL. Cell biology of the asialoglycoprotein receptor system: a model of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Int Rev Cytol. 1985;97:47-95. PMID:3000971  
  174. Simmons CF Jr, Schwartz AL. Cellular pathways of galactose-terminal ligand movement in a cloned human hepatoma cell line. Mol Pharmacol. 1984;26(3):509-19. PMID:6092900  
  175. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Luzio JP, Schwartz AL. A cycloheximide-resistant pool of receptors for asialoglycoproteins and mannose 6-phosphate residues in the Golgi complex of hepatocytes. EMBO J. 1984;3(11):2677-85. PMCID:PMC557749  PMID:6391915  
  176. Schwartz AL. Phosphorylation of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor. Biochem J. 1984;223(2):481-6. PMCID:PMC1144322  PMID:6541907  
  177. Schwartz AL, Steer CJ, Kempner ES. Functional size of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor as determined by radiation inactivation. J Biol Chem. 1984;259(19):12025-9. PMID:6090451  
  178. Aikawa M, Schwartz A, Uni S, Nussenzweig R, Hollingdale M. Ultrastructure of in vitro cultured exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium berghei in a hepatoma cell line. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33(5):792-9. PMID:6091467  
  179. Breitfeld PP, Rup D, Schwartz AL. Influence of the N-linked oligosaccharides on the biosynthesis, intracellular routing, and function of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor. J Biol Chem. 1984;259(16):10414-21. PMID:6088499  
  180. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Peppard J, von Figura K, Hasilik A, Schwartz AL. Intracellular receptor sorting during endocytosis: comparative immunoelectron microscopy of multiple receptors in rat liver. Cell. 1984;37(1):195-204. PMID:6327050  
  181. Schwartz AL, Bolognesi A, Fridovich SE. Recycling of the asialoglycoprotein receptor and the effect of lysosomotropic amines in hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1984;98(2):732-8. PMCID:PMC2113087  PMID:6319432  
  182. Hollingdale MR, Nardin EH, Tharavanij S, Schwartz AL, Nussenzweig RS. Inhibition of entry of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites into cultured cells; an in vitro assay of protective antibodies. J Immunol. 1984;132(2):909-13. PMID:6317752  
  183. Leichtner AM, Krieger M, Schwartz AL. Regulation of low density lipoprotein receptor function in a human hepatoma cell line. Hepatology. 1984;4(5):897-901. PMID:6090292  
  184. Schwartz AL. The hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor. CRC Crit Rev Biochem. 1984;16(3):207-33. PMID:6383714  
  185. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Schwartz AL. The pathway of the asialoglycoprotein-ligand during receptor-mediated endocytosis: a morphological study with colloidal gold/ligand in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Eur J Cell Biol. 1983;32(1):38-44. PMID:6321187  
  186. Schwartz AL, Rup D. Biosynthesis of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor. J Biol Chem. 1983;258(18):11249-55. PMID:6309839  
  187. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL, Dautry-Varsat A, Lodish HF. Kinetics of internalization and recycling of transferrin and the transferrin receptor in a human hepatoma cell line. Effect of lysosomotropic agents. J Biol Chem. 1983;258(16):9681-9. PMID:6309781  
  188. Markwell MAK, Portner A, Schwartz AL. Sendai virus host cell interaction: Defining the roles of the viral glycoproteins in adsorption and fusion by means of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Glycoconjugates, Ed. M.A. Chester, Lund-Ronneby, Sweden, July 17-23, 1983, pp 656-657 1983. 
  189. Hollingdale MR, Leland P, Schwartz AL. In vitro cultivation of the exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium berghei in a hepatoma cell line. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1983;32(4):682-4. PMID:6349397  
  190. Hollingdale MR, Leland P, Leef JL, Schwartz AL. Entry of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites into cultured cells, and their transformation into trophozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1983;32(4):685-90. PMID:6349398  
  191. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL, Lodish HF. The asialoglycoprotein receptor internalizes and recycles independently of the transferrin and insulin receptors. Cell. 1983;32(1):267-75. PMID:6297785  
  192. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Lodish HF, Schwartz AL. Intracellular site of asialoglycoprotein receptor-ligand uncoupling: double-label immunoelectron microscopy during receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell. 1983;32(1):277-87. PMID:6130851  
  193. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL, Lodish HF. Sorting and recycling of cell surface receptors and endocytosed ligands: the asialoglycoprotein and transferrin receptors. J Cell Biochem. 1983;23(1-4):107-30. doi:10.1002/jcb.240230111  PMID:6327736  
  194. Schwartz AL, Geuze HJ, Lodish HF. Recycling of the asialoglycoprotein receptor: biochemical and immunocytochemical evidence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1982;300(1099):229-35. PMID:6131461  
  195. Schwartz AL, Fridovich SE, Lodish HF. Kinetics of internalization and recycling of the asialoglycoprotein receptor in a hepatoma cell line. J Biol Chem. 1982;257(8):4230-7. PMID:6279629  
  196. Geuze HJ, Slot JW, Strous GJ, Lodish HF, Schwartz AL. Immunocytochemical localization of the receptor for asialoglycoprotein in rat liver cells. J Cell Biol. 1982;92(3):865-70. PMCID:PMC2112051  PMID:6282897  
  197. Hostetter MK, Schwartz AL, Siber GR, Schiffman G. Pneumococcal vaccine failure. Am J Dis Child. 1981;135(12):1149-50. PMID:7315817  
  198. Schwartz AL, Fridovich SE, Knowles BB, Lodish HF. Characterization of the asialoglycoprotein receptor in a continuous hepatoma line. J Biol Chem. 1981;256(17):8878-81. PMID:6267054  
  199. Schwartz AL, Marshak-Rothstein A, Rup D, Lodish HF. Identification and quantification of the rat hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78(6):3348-52. PMCID:PMC319565  PMID:6267585  
  200. Lodish HF, Braell WA, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ, Zilberstein A. Synthesis and assembly of membrane and organelle proteins. Int Rev Cytol Suppl. 1981;12:247-307. PMID:7019120  
  201. Schwartz AL, Rup D, Lodish HF. Difficulties in the quantification of asialoglycoprotein receptors on the rat hepatocyte. J Biol Chem. 1980;255(19):9033-6. PMID:7410410  
  202. Schwartz AL, Lipton JM, Warburton D, Johnson LB, Twarog FJ. Management of acute asthma in childhood. A randomized evaluation of beta-adrenergic agents. Am J Dis Child. 1980;134(5):474-8. PMID:6990745  
  203. Robert MF, Schultz DJ, Wolf B, Cochran WD, Schwartz AL. Treatment of a neonate with propionic acidaemia and severe hyperammonaemia by peritoneal dialysis. Arch Dis Child. 1979;54(12):962-5. PMCID:PMC1545766  PMID:533302  
  204. Schwartz AL, Cole FS, Fiedorek F, Matthews D, Paika I, Frantz ID, Latt SA. Effect of phototherapy on sister chromatid exchange in premature infants. Lancet. 1978;2(8081):157-8. PMID:78359  
  205. Schwartz AL, Polmar SH, Stern RC, Cowan DH. Abnormal platelet aggregation in severe combined immunodeficiency disease with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Br J Haematol. 1978;39(2):189-94. PMID:678472  
  206. Adam PA, Schwartz AL, Rahiala EL, Kekomäki M. Glucose production in midterm human fetus. I. Autoregulation of glucose uptake. Am J Physiol. 1978;234(6):E560-7. PMID:566517  
  207. Schwartz AL, Stern RC, Polmar SH. Demonstration of adenosine receptor on human lymphocytes in vitro and its possible role in the adenosine deaminase-deficient form of severe combined immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1978;9(4):499-505. PMID:206401  
  208. Schwartz AL, Forster CS, Smith PA, Liggins GC. Human amnion metabolism. II. Incorporation of fatty acids into tissue phospholipids in vitro. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127(5):475-81. PMID:836645  
  209. Schwartz AL, Forster CS, Smith PA, Liggins GC. Human amnion metabolism. I. In vitro maintenance. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127(5):470-4. PMID:836644  
  210. Liggins GC, Forster CS, Grieves SA, Schwartz AL. Control of parturition in man. Biol Reprod. 1977;16(1):39-56. PMID:318871  
  211. Raivio KO, Schwartz AL, Stern RC, Polmar SH. Adenine and adenosine metabolism in lymphocytes deficient in adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1977;76A:456-62. PMID:855721  
  212. Polmar SH, Stern RC, Schwartz AL, Wetzler EM, Chase PA, Hirschhorn R. Enzyme replacement therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 1976;295(24):1337-43. doi:10.1056/NEJM197612092952402  PMID:980079  
  213. Schwartz HC, King KC, Schwartz AL, Edmunds D, Schwartz R. Effects of pregnancy on hemoglobin AIc in normal, gestational diabetic, and diabetic women. Diabetes. 1976;25(12):1118-22. PMID:992231  
  214. Schwartz AL, Schwartz R, Schwartz HC. Effect of hypoxia on erythroblasts from avian fetal liver: adenosine triphosphate levels and hemoglobin synthesis. Pediatr Res. 1976;10(9):796-801. PMID:958752  
  215. Wolpaw DR, Schwartz AL. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in human fetal liver. Pediatr Res. 1976;10(4):224-6. doi:10.1203/00006450-197604000-00004  PMID:1272626  
  216. Schwartz AL. The metabolism of carbohydrate. Major Probl Clin Pediatr. 1976;3:3-28. PMID:185470  
  217. Schwartz AL, Raiha NC, Rall TW. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism in human fetal liver. I. Normal development and effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, glucagon, and insulin in liver explants. Diabetes. 1975;24(12):1101-12. PMID:172397  
  218. Schwartz AL, Rall TW. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism in human fetal liver. II. Regulation of glycogen synthase activity. Diabetes. 1975;24(12):1113-22. PMID:811498  
  219. Schwartz AL, Vasquez H, Selim M. Letter: Serum lactic dehydrogenase and ovarian carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975;123(1):106-7. PMID:1180276  
  220. Schwartz AL, Rall TW. Hormonal regulation of incorporation of alanine-U-14C into glucose in human fetal liver explants. Effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, glucagon, insulin, and triamcinolone. Diabetes. 1975;24(7):650-7. PMID:169172  
  221. Schwartz A. Hormonal regulation of amino acid accumulation in human fetal liver explants. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, glucogon and insulin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;362(2):276-89. PMID:4371400  
  222. Schwartz AL. Hormonal regulation of glucose production in human fetal liver Case Western Reserve University, Ph.D. Dissertation. 1974. 
  223. Schwartz AL, Räihä NC, Rall TW. Effect of dibutyryl cyclic amp on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in human fetal liver explants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;343(3):500-9. PMID:4366100  
  224. Schwartz AL, Rall TW. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism in neonatal rat liver. Biochem J. 1973;134(4):985-93. PMCID:PMC1177906  PMID:4357717  
  225. Räihä NC, Schwartz AL. Enzyme induction in human fetal liver in organ culture. Enzyme. 1973;15(1):330-9. PMID:4150364  
  226. Schwartz AL. Influence of glucagon, 6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate and triamcinolone on the arginine synthetase system in perinatal rat liver. Biochem J. 1972;126(1):89-98. PMCID:PMC1178354  PMID:4342387  
  227. Kekomäki M, Seppälä M, Ehnholm C, Schwartz AL, Raivio K. Perfusion of isolated human fetal liver: synthesis and release of -fetoprotein and albumin. Int J Cancer. 1971;8(2):250-8. PMID:4109106  
  228. Raiha NCR, Schwartz AL, Lindroos MC. Induction of Tyrosine-a-Ketoglutarate Transaminase in Fetal Rat and Fetal Human Liver in Organ Culture. doi:10.1203/00006450-197102000-00004 Pediatr Res.. 1971;5(2):70-6. 
  229. Kekomäki M, Schwartz AL, Pentikäinen P. Rate of urea synthesis in normal and cirrhotic rat liver with reference to the arginine synthetase system. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1970;5(5):375-80. PMID:5455822  
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