Phillip I. Tarr, M.D.

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Division Chief, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Co-Leader, Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Melvin E. Carnahan Professor of Pediatrics
Professor of Molecular Microbiology
Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

phone: (314) 454-6173


  • BA, Brown University1975
  • MD, Yale University School of Medicine1980


  • Intern/Resident, University of Washington School of Medicine/Children's Orthopedic Hospital and Medical Center1980 - 1983
  • Senior Fellow, University of Washington School of Medicine1983 - 1987
  • Fellow, University of Washington School of Medicine and Children's Hospital and Medical Center 1988 - 1989

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1984 - PresPediatrics - ABP
  • 1992 - PresPediatric Gastroenterology - ABP
  • 2002 - PresMO
  • 2012 - 2012BCS
  • 2013The American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) Maintenance of Certification (MOC)
  • 2016 - PresAR

Honors and Awards

  • American Gastroenterological Association/Blackwell Scientific Research Scholar Award1992 - 1995
  • Food and Drug Administration Commissioner's Special Citation1997 - 1997
  • Melvin E. Carnahan Professor of Pediatrics, Endowed Chair2004 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (217)

  1. A clinical epidemiology and molecular attribution evaluation of adenoviruses in paediatric acute gastroenteritis: A case-control study. J Clin Microbiol. 2020. doi:10.1128/JCM.02287-20  PMID: 33115841 
  2. Factors Associated with Non-Adherence in an Emergency Department Based Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of a Probiotic in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2020. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000002904  PMID:32804911 
  3. Synchronization of mothers and offspring promotes tolerance and limits allergy. JCI Insight. 2020. doi:10.1172/jci.insight.137943  PMID:32759496 
  4. The progression of serum cystatin C concentrations within the first month of life after preterm birth-a worldwide systemati review. Pediatric Nephrology. 2020. doi:10.1007/s00467-020-04543-1  PMID:32757062 
  5. Influenza Virus Detection in the Stool of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104565  PMID:32810839 
  6. Attribution of Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis Episodes and Emergency Department Visits to Norovirus GI and GII. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa391  PMID:32614406 
  7. Maternal activation of the EGFR prevents translocation of gut-residing pathogenic Escherichia coli in a model of late-onset neonatal sepsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2020. doi:10.1073/pnas.1912022117  PMID:32179676  
  8. The Probiotic Conundrum: Regulatory Confusion, Conflicting Studies, and Safety Concerns. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2020;323(9):823-824. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.22268  PMID:32125410 
  9. The effect of legume supplementation on the gut microbiota in rural Malawian infants aged 6 to 12 months. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (E-pub ahead of print). 2020. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa011  PMID:32047925 
  10. Diagnostic Test Accuracy of Commercial Tests for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical Chemistry. 2020;1;66(2):302-315. doi:10.1093/clinchem/hvz006  PMID:32040589 
  11. A novel histological index for evaluation of environmental enteric dysfunction identifies geographic-specific features of enteropathy among children with suboptimal growth. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2020. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007975  PMID:31929525 
  12. Lactotrehalose, an Analog of Trehalose, Increases Energy Metabolism Without Promoting Clostridioides difficile Infection in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2019. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2019.11.295  PMID:31838076 
  13. Discordant transmission of bacteria and viruses from mothers to babies at birth. Microbiome. 2019. doi:10.1186/s40168-019-0766-7  PMID:31823811 
  14. Contribution and Interaction of Shiga Toxin Genes to Escherichia coli O157:H7 Virulence. Toxins. 2019. doi:10.3390/toxins11100607  PMID:31635282 
  15. Transdermal fluorescence detection of a dual fluorophore system for noninvasive point-of-care gastrointestinal permeability measurement. Biomed Opt Express. 2019. doi:10.1364/BOE.10.005103  PMID:31646033 
  16. Persistent metagenomic signatures of early-life hospitalization and antibiotic treatment in the infant gut microbiota and resistome. Nat Microbiol. 2019. doi:10.1038/s41564-019-0550-2   PMID:31501537 
  17. Letter: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG offers no benefit over placebo in children with acute gastroenteritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2019. doi:10.1111/apt.15418  PMID:31414542 
  18. Global Review of the Age Distribution of Rotavirus Disease in Children Aged <5 Years Before the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccination. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2019. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz060  PMID:30689799 
  19. Clinical interpretation of enteric molecular diagnostic tests. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2019.08.018  PMID:31491461 
  20. Lactobacillus for Gastroenteritis in Children. Reply. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(19):e36. PMID:31067399 
  21. Impaired Chylomicron Assembly Modifies Hepatic Metabolism Through Bile Acid-Dependent and Transmissible Microbial Adaptations. Hepatology. 2019;70(4):1168-1184. doi:10.1002/hep.30669  PMCID:PMC6783349  PMID:31004524 
  22. Comparative Evaluation of Enteric Bacterial Culture and a Molecular Multiplex Syndromic Panel in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2019. PMID:30971465 
  23. Pigment Visibility on Rectal Swabs Used to Detect Enteropathogens: A Prospective Cohort Study. J Clin Microbiol. 2019. PMID:30944189 
  24. Respiratory Medications in Infants <29 Weeks during the First Year Postdischarge: The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) Consortium. J Pediatr. 2019. PMID:30857774 
  25. Performance of commercial tests for molecular detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC): a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. BMJ Open. 2019;9(3):e025950. PMID:30850413 
  26. Black Race Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia J Pediatr. 2019. PMID:30612812 
  27. Performance of Stool Testing Recommendations for Acute Gastroenteritis when Used to Identify Children with Nine Potential Bacterial Enteropathogens. Clin Infect Dis. 2018. PMID:30517612 
  28. Case definitions of hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection vary in validity. Int J Med Microbiol. 2018;308(8):1121-1127. PMID:30466555 
  29. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(21):2002-2014. PMID:30462938 
  30. Infant diet and maternal gestational weight gain predict early metabolic maturation of gut microbiomes. Nat Med. 2018. PMID:30374198 
  31. Strength of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection varies with case definition. Int J Med Microbiol. 2018;308(7):921-926. PMID:30257808 
  32. Diagnostic Interpretation Guidance for Pediatric Enteric Pathogens: A Modified Delphi Consensus Process. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2018;2018:2589826. PMCID:PMC6180965  PMID:30363711 
  33. Gut Sphingolipid Composition as a Prelude to Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):10984. PMID:30030452 
  34. Relationship between Enteric Pathogen and Acute Gastroenteritis Disease Severity - A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018. PMID:29964235 
  35. Importance of case age in the purported association between phylogenetics and hemolytic uremic syndrome in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Epidemiol Infect. 2018;1-6. PMID:29914582 
  36. Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection in Children With Bloody Diarrhea. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018. PMID:29617871 
  37. Acute Responses to Diuretic Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Results from the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Cohort Study. J Pediatr. 2018. PMID:29599068 
  38. Carriage of Cronobacter sakazakii in the very preterm infant gut. Clin Infect Dis. 2018. PMID:29394356 
  39. Geogenomic Segregation and Temporal Trends of Human Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, Washington, USA, 2005-20141. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(1):32-39. PMCID:PMC5749469  PMID:29260688 
  40. Microbial antigen encounter during a preweaning interval is critical for tolerance to gut bacteria. Sci Immunol. 2017;2(18). PMCID:PMC5759965  PMID:29246946 
  41. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: A Case Definition for Intervention Trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97(6):1643-1646. PMID:29016294 
  42. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(12):1963-1973. PMID:29194529 
  43. Serologic Evidence of Gut-driven Systemic Inflammation in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2017;44(11):1624-1631. PMID:28916545 
  44. The Microbiome and Biomarkers for Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Are We Any Closer to Prediction? J Pediatr. 2017;189:40-47.e2. PMCID:PMC5614810  PMID:28669607 
  45. Randomised controlled trial of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) versus placebo in children presenting to the emergency department with acute gastroenteritis: the PECARN probiotic study protocol. BMJ Open. 2017;7(9):e018115. PMCID:PMC5623493  PMID:28947466 
  46. Measurement of gut permeability using fluorescent tracer agent technology. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):10888. PMCID:PMC5589723  PMID:28883476 
  47. Case-Control Assessment of the Roles of Noroviruses, Human Bocaviruses 2, 3, and 4, and Novel Polyomaviruses and Astroviruses in Acute Childhood Diarrhea. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017;6(3):e49-e54. PMID:28186546 
  48. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217(3):356.e1-356.e18. PMCID:PMC5581228  PMID:28549981 
  49. Enteropathogen detection in children with diarrhoea, or vomiting, or both, comparing rectal flocked swabs with stool specimens: an outpatient cohort study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2(9):662-669. PMID:28712662 
  50. Impaired Barrier Function and Autoantibody Generation in Malnutrition Enteropathy in Zambia. EBioMedicine. 2017;22:191-199. PMCID:PMC5552244  PMID:28750860 
  51. Independence of gut bacterial content and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis severity. J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52(6):993-998. PMCID:PMC5473614  PMID:28410788 
  52. Intestinal dysbiosis in preterm infants preceding necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Microbiome. 2017;5(1):31. PMCID:PMC5343300  PMID:28274256 
  53. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and the Fecal Microbiota in Malawian Children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96(2):473-476. PMCID:PMC5303055  PMID:27956653 
  54. Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(1):68-76. PMID:27893870 
  55. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Is Associated With Poor Linear Growth and Can Be Identified by Host Fecal mRNAs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63(5):453-459. PMCID:PMC5084633  PMID:27347722 
  56. Antibiotic perturbation of the preterm infant gut microbiome and resistome. Gut Microbes. 2016;7(5):443-9. PMCID:PMC5154371  PMID:27472377 
  57. Whole Genome Sequencing for Genomics-Guided Investigations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:985. PMCID:PMC4928038  PMID:27446025 
  58. Development of the gut microbiota and mucosal IgA responses in twins and gnotobiotic mice. Nature. 2016;534(7606):263-6. PMCID:PMC4902178  PMID:27279225 
  59. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):1251-1258. PMCID:PMC4845788  PMID:26917812 
  60. Gut bacteria dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a prospective case-control study. Lancet. 2016;387(10031):1928-36. PMCID:PMC5553277  PMID:26969089 
  61. Droplet digital PCR quantifies host inflammatory transcripts in feces reliably and reproducibly. Cell Immunol. 2016;303:43-9. PMCID:PMC4863679  PMID:27063479 
  62. Developmental dynamics of the preterm infant gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:16024. PMCID:PMC5031140  PMID:27572443 
  63. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Includes a Broad Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial Repair Processes. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2(2):158-174.e1. PMCID:PMC4769221  PMID:26973864 
  64. Gut Colonization of Healthy Children and Their Mothers With Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 2015;212(12):1862-8. PMCID:PMC4655851  PMID:25969564 
  65. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015;12(12):1822-30. PMCID:PMC4722827  PMID:26397992 
  66. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;36(10):1173-82. PMCID:PMC5089903  PMID:26108888 
  67. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants. Nat Med. 2015;21(10):1228-34. PMCID:PMC4710368  PMID:26366711 
  68. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children. Microbiome. 2015;3:37. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0102-9  PMCID:PMC4558878  PMID:26334878 
  69. Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam (APPETITE): epidemiology, emerging organisms, and economics. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:89. PMCID:PMC4521468  PMID:26226953 
  70. Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Clinical Samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(7):2148-53. PMCID:PMC4473226  PMID:25926491 
  71. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130902. PMCID:PMC4509574  PMID:26125937 
  72. Development of an enhanced human gastrointestinal epithelial culture system to facilitate patient-based assays. Gut. 2015;64(6):911-20. PMCID:PMC4305344  PMID:25007816 
  73. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach. J Perinatol. 2015;35(5):313-21. doi:10.1038/jp.2015.19  PMCID:PMC4414744  PMID:25811285 
  74. Prematurity and respiratory outcomes program (PROP): study protocol of a prospective multicenter study of respiratory outcomes of preterm infants in the United States. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:37. PMCID:PMC4407843  PMID:25886363 
  75. Agitation down-regulates immunoglobulin binding protein EibG expression in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0119583. PMCID:PMC4352079  PMID:25746924 
  76. Gut resistome development in healthy twin pairs in the first year of life. Microbiome. 2015;3:27. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0090-9  PMCID:PMC4480905  PMID:26113976 
  77. Small bowel resection induces long-term changes in the enteric microbiota of mice. J Gastrointest Surg. 2015;19(1):56-64; discussion 64. PMCID:PMC4576885  PMID:25183407 
  78. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates: a single-center study. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(12):4260-6. PMCID:PMC4313296  PMID:25275005 
  79. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: a single-center, 11-year pediatric experience. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(10):3647-53. PMCID:PMC4187762  PMID:25078916 
  80. Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(34):12522-7. PMCID:PMC4151715  PMID:25114261 
  81. Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(9):1211-8. PMCID:PMC3982840  PMID:24647013 
  82. Heteropathogenic virulence and phylogeny reveal phased pathogenic metamorphosis in Escherichia coli O2:H6. EMBO Mol Med. 2014;6(