Phillip I. Tarr, M.D.

Division Chief, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Co-Leader, Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics
Melvin E. Carnahan Professor of Pediatrics
Professor of Molecular Microbiology
Gastroenterology, Hepatology and NutritionPathobiologyMolecular Microbiology

phone: (314) 454-6173


  • BA, Brown University1975
  • MD, Yale University School of Medicine1980


  • Intern/Resident, University of Washington School of Medicine/Children's Orthopedic Hospital and Medical Center1980 - 1983
  • Senior Fellow, University of Washington School of Medicine1983 - 1987
  • Fellow, University of Washington School of Medicine and Children's Hospital and Medical Center 1988 - 1989

Licensure and Board Certification

  • Pediatrics - ABP 1984
  • Pediatric Gastroenterology - ABP 1992
  • MO, 2002
  • BCS 2012
  • The American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) 2013
  • AR, 2016


  • American Gastroenterological Association/Blackwell Scientific Research Scholar Award1992 - 1995
  • Food and Drug Administration Commissioner's Special Citation1997 - 1997
  • Melvin E. Carnahan Professor of Pediatrics, Endowed Chair2004 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (171)

  1. Geogenomic Segregation and Temporal Trends of Human Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, Washington, USA, 2005-20141. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(1):32-39. PMID:29260688 
  2. Microbial antigen encounter during a preweaning interval is critical for tolerance to gut bacteria. Sci Immunol. 2017;2(18). PMID:29246946 
  3. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(12):1963-1973. PMID:29194529 
  4. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: A Case Definition for Intervention Trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017. PMID:29016294 
  5. Randomised controlled trial of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) versus placebo in children presenting to the emergency department with acute gastroenteritis: the PECARN probiotic study protocol. BMJ Open. 2017;7(9):e018115. PMID:28947466 
  6. Serologic Evidence of Gut-driven Systemic Inflammation in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2017. PMID:28916545 
  7. Measurement of gut permeability using fluorescent tracer agent technology. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):10888. PMCID:PMC5589723  PMID:28883476 
  8. Impaired Barrier Function and Autoantibody Generation in Malnutrition Enteropathy in Zambia. EBioMedicine. 2017. PMID:28750860 
  9. Enteropathogen detection in children with diarrhoea, or vomiting, or both, comparing rectal flocked swabs with stool specimens: an outpatient cohort study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017. PMID:28712662 
  10. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017. PMID:28549981 
  11. Independence of gut bacterial content and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis severity. J Pediatr Surg. 2017. PMID:28410788 
  12. Intestinal dysbiosis in preterm infants preceding necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Microbiome. 2017;5(1):31. PMCID:PMC5343300  PMID:28274256 
  13. Case-Control Assessment of the Roles of Noroviruses, Human Bocaviruses 2, 3, and 4, and Novel Polyomaviruses and Astroviruses in Acute Childhood Diarrhea. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017. PMID:28186546 
  14. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and the Fecal Microbiota in Malawian Children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96(2):473-476. PMCID:PMC5303055  PMID:27956653 
  15. Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2016. PMID:27893870 
  16. Antibiotic perturbation of the preterm infant gut microbiome and resistome. Gut Microbes. 2016;0. PMID:27472377 
  17. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction is Associated with Poor Linear Growth and Can be Identified by Host Fecal mRNAs. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001315  PMID:27347722 
  18. Development of the gut microbiota and mucosal IgA responses in twins and gnotobiotic mice. Nature. 2016;534(7606):263-6. doi:10.1038/nature17940  PMCID:PMC4902178  PMID:27279225 
  19. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):1251-8. doi:10.1093/cid/ciw099  PMCID:PMC4845788  PMID:26917812 
  20. Droplet digital PCR quantifies host inflammatory transcripts in feces reliably and reproducibly. Cell Immunol. 2016;S0008-8749(16):30016-8. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.03.007  PMID:27063479 
  21. Gut bacteria dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a prospective case-control study. Lancet. 2016;S0140-6736(16):00081-7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00081-7  PMID:26969089 
  22. Developmental dynamics of the preterm infant gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:16024. PMID:27572443 
  23. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Includes a Broad Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial Repair Processes. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2(2):158-174.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jcmgh.2015.12.002  PMCID:PMC4769221  PMID:26973864 
  24. Whole Genome Sequencing for Genomics-Guided Investigations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:985. PMID:27446025 
  25. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015;12(12):1822-30. doi:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201504-218OC  PMCID:PMC4722827  PMID:26397992 
  26. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants. Nat Med. 2015;21(10):1228-34. doi:10.1038/nm.3950  PMID:26366711 
  27. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children. Microbiome. 2015;3:37. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0102-9  PMCID:PMC4558878  PMID:26334878 
  28. Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam (APPETITE): epidemiology, emerging organisms, and economics. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:89. doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0407-7  PMCID:PMC4521468  PMID:26226953 
  29. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;1-10. doi:10.1017/ice.2015.144  PMID:26108888 
  30. Development of an enhanced human gastrointestinal epithelial culture system to facilitate patient-based assays. Gut. 2015;64(6):911-20. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306651  PMCID:PMC4305344  PMID:25007816 
  31. Gut Colonization of Healthy Children and Their Mothers With Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 2015. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiv278  PMID:25969564 
  32. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach. J Perinatol. 2015;35(5):313-21. doi:10.1038/jp.2015.19  PMCID:PMC4414744  PMID:25811285 
  33. Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Clinical Samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2015. doi:10.1128/JCM.00115-15  PMID:25926491 
  34. Prematurity and respiratory outcomes program (PROP): study protocol of a prospective multicenter study of respiratory outcomes of preterm infants in the United States. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:37. doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0346-3  PMCID:PMC4407843  PMID:25886363 
  35. Agitation down-regulates immunoglobulin binding protein EibG expression in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0119583. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119583  PMID:25746924 
  36. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130902. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130902  PMID:26125937 
  37. Gut resistome development in healthy twin pairs in the first year of life. Microbiome. 2015;3:27. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0090-9  PMCID:PMC4480905  PMID:26113976 
  38. Small bowel resection induces long-term changes in the enteric microbiota of mice. J Gastrointest Surg. 2015;19(1):56-64; discussion 64. doi:10.1007/s11605-014-2631-0  PMCID:PMC4576885  PMID:25183407 
  39. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates: a single-center study. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(12):4260-6. doi:10.1128/JCM.02115-14  PMCID:PMC4313296  PMID:25275005 
  40. Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(34):12522-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1409497111  PMID:25114261 
  41. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: a single-center, 11-year pediatric experience. J Clin Microbiol. 2014. doi:10.1128/JCM.01231-14  PMID:25078916 
  42. Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(9):1211-8. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu084  PMID:24647013 
  43. Heteropathogenic virulence and phylogeny reveal phased pathogenic metamorphosis in Escherichia coli O2:H6. EMBO Mol Med. 2014;6(3):347-57. doi:10.1002/emmm.201303133  PMCID:PMC3958309  PMID:24413188 
  44. Fecal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in healthy children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(2):1261-2. doi:10.1128/AAC.02466-13  PMID:24277049 
  45. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain 2886-75, Associated with the First Reported Case of Human Infection in the United States. Genome Announc. 2014;2(1). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01120-13  PMCID:PMC3886948  PMID:24407635 
  46. Precise dissection of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(12):3950-4. doi:10.1128/JCM.01930-13  PMCID:PMC3838074  PMID:24048526 
  47. Viral co-infections are common and are associated with higher bacterial burden in children with clostridium difficile infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57(6):813-6. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182a3202f  PMID:23838821 
  48. Intestinal inflammatory biomarkers and outcome in pediatric Clostridium difficile infections. J Pediatr. 2013;163(6):1697-1704.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.07.029  PMID:24011765 
  49. Validation of the modified Vesikari score in children with gastroenteritis in 5 US emergency departments. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57(4):514-9. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31829ae5a3  PMCID:PMC3788842  PMID:23676445 
  50. Dysregulation of angiopoietin 1 and 2 in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2013;208(6):929-33. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit268  PMCID:PMC3749007  PMID:23801605 
  51. Gastrointestinal viruses were not found as an aetiology of culture-negative illness in NICU patients. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013;98(4):F374-5. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-303807  PMID:23563694 
  52. Markers of intestinal inflammation, not bacterial burden, correlate with clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(12):1713-21. doi:10.1093/cid/cit147  PMCID:PMC3707425  PMID:23487367 
  53. Whole-Genome Draft Sequences of 26 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains. Genome Announc. 2013;1(2):e0013412. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00134-12  PMCID:PMC3593324  PMID:23516226 
  54. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body. Genome Biol. 2013;14(1):R1. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-1-r1  PMID:23316946 
  55. Use and accuracy of diagnostic imaging by hospital type in pediatric appendicitis. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):e37-44. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1665  PMCID:PMC3529953  PMID:23266930 
  56. Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e78822. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078822  PMCID:PMC3827270  PMID:24236055 
  57. Detection of low-concentration host mRNA transcripts in Malawian children at risk for environmental enteropathy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;56(1):66-71. PMID:22832511 
  58. Diarrhea etiology in a pediatric emergency department: a case control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(7):897-904. doi:10.1093/cid/cis553  PMCID:PMC3657524  PMID:22700832 
  59. Editorial commentary: Escherichia coli O104:H4 and hemolytic uremic syndrome: the analysis begins. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(6):760-3. PMID:22670035 
  60. Risk factors for the hemolytic uremic syndrome in children infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7: a multivariable analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(1):33-41. doi:10.1093/cid/cis299  PMCID:PMC3493180  PMID:22431799 
  61. Azithromycin decolonization of STEC--a new risk emerges. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012;8(7):429. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2012.87-c1  PMID:22664737 
  62. The CXCR4/CXCR7/SDF-1 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(2):759-76. doi:10.1172/JCI57313  PMCID:PMC3266777  PMID:22232208 
  63. Early volume expansion during diarrhea and relative nephroprotection during subsequent hemolytic uremic syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(10):884-9. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.152  PMID:21784993 
  64. The age of necrotizing enterocolitis onset: an application of Sartwell's incubation period model. J Perinatol. 2011;31(8):519-23. doi:10.1038/jp.2010.193  PMCID:PMC3145821  PMID:21273988 
  65. Obscured phylogeny and possible recombinational dormancy in Escherichia coli. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:183. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-183  PMCID:PMC3152902  PMID:21708031 
  66. Bacterial DNA content in the intestinal wall from infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(6):1029-33. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.03.026  PMCID:PMC3118995  PMID:21683193 
  67. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli haemolysin is cleaved and inactivated by serine protease EspPα. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13(5):1327-41. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02431.x  PMCID:PMC3472028  PMID:21352460 
  68. Chromosomal instability in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: impact on adherence, tellurite resistance and colony phenotype. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79(4):1024-44. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07499.x  PMCID:PMC3064760  PMID:21299654 
  69. Further evidence of constrained radiation in the evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10(8):1282-5. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2010.07.021  PMCID:PMC3742067  PMID:20691811 
  70. Bacterial macroscopic rope-like fibers with cytopathic and adhesive properties. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(42):32336-42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.162248  PMCID:PMC2952234  PMID:20688909 
  71. Proinflammatory fecal mRNA and childhood bacterial enteric infections. Gut Microbes. 2010;1(4):209-212. doi:10.4161/gmic.1.4.13004  PMCID:PMC3023602  PMID:21327027 
  72. Shiga toxin 1 interaction with enterocytes causes apical protein mistargeting through the depletion of intracellular galectin-3. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316(4):657-66. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.09.002  PMCID:PMC2815162  PMID:19744479 
  73. Deer sausage: a newly identified vehicle of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Pediatr. 2009;155(4):587-9. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.02.051  PMID:19773004 
  74. A method for isolating and analyzing human mRNA from newborn stool. J Immunol Methods. 2009;349(1-2):56-60. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2009.07.013  PMCID:PMC2850193  PMID:19660464 
  75. The Escherichia coli ycbQRST operon encodes fimbriae with laminin-binding and epithelial cell adherence properties in Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11(7):1815-26. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01906.x  PMCID:PMC2888687  PMID:19508558 
  76. A precise reconstruction of the emergence and constrained radiations of Escherichia coli O157 portrayed by backbone concatenomic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(21):8713-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812949106  PMCID:PMC2689004  PMID:19439656 
  77. Parental management of childhood diarrhea. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009;48(3):295-303. doi:10.1177/0009922808327057  PMID:19023110 
  78. Tri-county comprehensive assessment of risk factors for sporadic reportable bacterial enteric infection in children. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(4):467-76. doi:10.1086/596555  PMCID:PMC3693595  PMID:19281302 
  79. Detection and characterization of the fimbrial sfp cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O165:H25/NM isolates from humans and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75(1):64-71. doi:10.1128/AEM.01815-08  PMCID:PMC2612197  PMID:18978078 
  80. Prevalence and mechanisms of broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: a children's hospital experience. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(11):3909-14. doi:10.1128/AAC.00622-08  PMCID:PMC2573145  PMID:18765688 
  81. Recent advances and evidence gaps in persistent diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47(2):260-5. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e318181b334  PMID:18664885 
  82. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of common strains of Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(8):2800-4. doi:10.1128/JCM.00152-08  PMCID:PMC2519505  PMID:18550738 
  83. Associations between bovine, human, and raw milk, and beef isolates of non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli within a restricted geographic area of the United States. J Food Prot. 2008;71(5):1023-7. PMID:18522040 
  84. Metagenomic analysis of human diarrhea: viral detection and discovery. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4(2):e1000011. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000011  PMCID:PMC2290972  PMID:18398449 
  85. Fim operon variation in the emergence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: an evolutionary and functional analysis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;273(1):58-63. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00781.x  PMID:17559392 
  86. Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73(10):3144-50. doi:10.1128/AEM.02937-06  PMCID:PMC1907125  PMID:17400784 
  87. Greater diversity of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites among Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle than in those from humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73(3):671-9. doi:10.1128/AEM.01035-06  PMCID:PMC1800756  PMID:17142358 
  88. Expression of the Escherichia coli IrgA homolog adhesin is regulated by the ferric uptake regulation protein. Microb Pathog. 2006;41(6):207-17. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2006.07.006  PMCID:PMC2039900  PMID:16954050 
  89. Diarrhea etiology in a Children's Hospital Emergency Department: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(7):807-13. doi:10.1086/507335  PMID:16941358 
  90. Ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the fecal microflora of children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(10):3325-9. doi:10.1128/AAC.00548-06  PMCID:PMC1610095  PMID:17005812 
  91. Proteomics-based expression library screening (PELS): a novel method for rapidly defining microbial immunoproteomes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5(8):1514-9. doi:10.1074/mcp.T600013-MCP200  PMCID:PMC2754196  PMID:16737953 
  92. Expression of putative virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 differs in bovine and human infections. Infect Immun. 2006;74(7):4142-8. doi:10.1128/IAI.00299-06  PMCID:PMC1489682  PMID:16790788 
  93. Lipopolysaccharide from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli binds to platelets through TLR4 and CD62 and is detected on circulating platelets in patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Blood. 2006;108(1):167-76. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-08-3219  PMCID:PMC1895830  PMID:16514062 
  94. Molecular profiling and phenotype analysis of Escherichia coli O26:H11 and O26:NM: secular and geographic consistency of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(8):4225-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.8.4225-4228.2005  PMCID:PMC1233958  PMID:16081985 
  95. Relative nephroprotection during Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: association with intravenous volume expansion. Pediatrics. 2005;115(6):e673-80. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2236  PMID:15930195 
  96. Use of in vivo-induced antigen technology for identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 proteins expressed during human infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73(5):2665-79. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.5.2665-2679.2005  PMCID:PMC1087376  PMID:15845468 
  97. Etiology of diarrhea in pediatric outpatient settings. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(2):142-8. PMID:15702043 
  98. The IrgA homologue adhesin Iha is an Escherichia coli virulence factor in murine urinary tract infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73(2):965-71. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.2.965-971.2005  PMCID:PMC546986  PMID:15664939 
  99. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting O157:NM clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(1):452-4. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.1.452-454.2005  PMCID:PMC540173  PMID:15635013 
  100. Shiga toxin antigen detection should not replace sorbitol MacConkey agar screening of stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(9):4416; author reply 4416-7. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.9.4416-4417.2004  PMCID:PMC516334  PMID:15365063 
  101. Escherichia coli O157 exposure in Wyoming and Seattle: serologic evidence of rural risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(10):1226-31. doi:10.3201/eid0910.020254  PMCID:PMC3033090  PMID:14609456 
  102. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Montana: bacterial genotypes and clinical profiles. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(5):719-29. doi:10.1086/376999  PMID:12934188 
  103. High-frequency secondary mutations after suicide-driven allelic exchange mutagenesis in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185(17):5301-5. PMCID:PMC180995  PMID:12923106 
  104. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages: integrations, excisions, truncations, and evolutionary implications. J Bacteriol. 2003;185(12):3596-605. PMCID:PMC156235  PMID:12775697 
  105. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in association with typhoid fever. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(3):709-13. doi:10.1053/ajkd.2003.50135  PMID:12612998 
  106. Cardiac ischemia during hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18(3):286-9. doi:10.1007/s00467-002-1039-3  PMID:12644926 
  107. Single multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect diverse loci associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(1):127-31. doi:10.3201/eid0901.010507  PMCID:PMC2873745  PMID:12533296 
  108. Platelet-activating factor and Escherichia coliO157:H7 infections. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17(12):1047-52. doi:10.1007/s00467-002-0970-7  PMID:12478356 
  109. Molecular characterization of a serotype O121:H19 clone, a distinct Shiga toxin-producing clone of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2002;70(12):6853-9. PMCID:PMC133070  PMID:12438362 
  110. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea: a prospective point-of-care study. J Pediatr. 2002;141(2):172-7. doi:10.1067/mpd.2002.125908  PMID:12183710 
  111. StcE, a metalloprotease secreted by Escherichia coli O157:H7, specifically cleaves C1 esterase inhibitor. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45(2):277-88. PMID:12123444 
  112. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: discordance between filterable fecal shiga toxin and disease outcome. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(1):57-63. doi:10.1086/341295  PMID:12089662 
  113. Analysis of urinary Escherichia coli isolates for ability to produce Shiga toxin. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(6):2247-8. PMCID:PMC130820  PMID:12037099 
  114. ABO and P1 blood group antigen expression and stx genotype and outcome of childhood Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. J Infect Dis. 2002;185(2):214-9. doi:10.1086/338480  PMID:11807695 
  115. Prothrombotic coagulation abnormalities preceding the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(1):23-32. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011033  PMID:11777999 
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