Joshua B. Rubin, M.D., Ph.D.

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Professor of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology
Professor, Neurology
Professor, Neuroscience
School of MedicineNeuroscienceHematology and Oncology



  • MD, Albert Einstein College of Medicine1994
  • PhD, Albert Einstein College of Medicine1994
  • BS, Yale University1982
  • MSc, Albert Einstein College of Medicine1992


  • Internship in Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital1994 - 1995
  • Residency in Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital1995 - 1997
  • Fellowship in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children's Hospital1997 - 2000
  • Post-Doctoral Fellow, Dana Farber Cancer Institute1998 - 2003

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1994 - 2004MA
  • 2003 - PresMO
  • 2004 - PresMO, Medical License
  • 2004 - PresAmerican Board of Pediatrics, sub-board in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

Honors and Awards

  • Alpha Omega Alpha1993
  • NICHD Scholar of the Child Health Research Center for Excellence in developmental biology at Washington University School of Medicine2003
  • Andrew Hennessey Memorial Award for Scientific Research2005
  • Elected Member, Society for Pediatric Research2008 - Pres
  • Hyundai Scholar2008
  • Top 10 Percent Washington University School of Medicine Faculty on patient satisfaction surveys2008
  • Hyundai Scholar2013 - 2015
  • Pioneer Award in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology from the Children's Brain Tumor Foundation2018 - Pres

Recent Publications view all (130)

Publication Co-Authors

  1. De novo serine biosynthesis from glucose predicts sex-specific response to antifolates in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. iScience. 2022;25(11):105339. PMCID:PMC9619300  PMID:36325067 
  2. Sex differences in brain tumor glutamine metabolism reveal sex-specific vulnerabilities to treatment. Med (N Y). 2022. PMID:36108629 
  3. Failure of human rhombic lip differentiation underlies medulloblastoma formation. Nature. 2022;609(7929):1021-1028. PMID:36131014 
  4. Gonadal sex patterns p21-induced cellular senescence in mouse and human glioblastoma. Commun Biol. 2022;5(1):781. PMCID:PMC9345919  PMID:35918603 
  5. Editorial: Differential Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors due to Age and Sex Factors. Front Immunol. 2022;13:941254. PMCID:PMC9244535  PMID:35784358 
  6. The H3K27M mutation alters stem cell growth, epigenetic regulation, and differentiation potential. BMC Biol. 2022;20(1):124. PMCID:PMC9153095  PMID:35637482 
  7. A randomized feasibility study evaluating temozolomide circadian medicine in patients with glioma. Neurooncol Pract. 2022;9(3):193-200. PMCID:PMC9113320  PMID:35601970 
  8. Leptomeningeal disease and tumor dissemination in a murine diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma model: implications for the study of the tumor-cerebrospinal fluid-ependymal microenvironment. Neurooncol Adv. 2022;4(1):vdac059. PMCID:PMC9209751  PMID:35733516 
  9. The spectrum of sex differences in cancer. Trends Cancer. 2022;8(4):303-315. PMCID:PMC8930612  PMID:35190302 
  10. Genetic and histopathological associations with outcome in pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2022;1-9. PMID:35148515 
  11. C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4-Targeted Imaging in Glioblastoma Multiforme Using 64Cu-Radiolabeled Ultrasmall Gold Nanoclusters. ACS Appl Bio Mater. 2022;5(1):235-242. PMID:35014818 
  12. A review of bioeffects induced by focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles on the neurovascular unit. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2022;42(1):3-26. PMCID:PMC8721781  PMID:34551608 
  13. Editorial: Sex Difference in Cancer Genomics and Its Impact on Therapy. Front Genet. 2021;12:815804. PMCID:PMC8716819  PMID:34976031 
  14. Independently validated sex-specific nomograms for predicting survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 and 0825. J Neurooncol. 2021;155(3):363-372. PMCID:PMC8651582  PMID:34761331 
  15. Sex- and mutation-specific p53 gain-of-function activity in gliomagenesis. Cancer Res Commun. 2021;1(3):148-163. PMCID:PMC8694557  PMID:34957471 
  16. Subgroup and subtype-specific outcomes in adult medulloblastoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2021. PMID:34409497 
  17. Importance of the intersection of age and sex to understand variation in incidence and survival for primary malignant gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2021. PMID:34387331 
  18. Molecular omics resources should require sex annotation: a call for action. Nat Methods. 2021;18(6):585-588. PMID:34099934 
  19. Brd4-bound enhancers drive cell-intrinsic sex differences in glioblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021;118(16). PMID:33850013 
  20. Sex disparities matter in cancer development and therapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2021. PMID:33879867 
  21. Sex- and Gender-Based Pharmacological Response to Drugs. Pharmacol Rev. 2021;73(2):730-762. PMCID:PMC7938661  PMID:33653873 
  22. The transcriptional landscape of Shh medulloblastoma. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):1749. PMCID:PMC7979819  PMID:33741928 
  23. Temozolomide chronotherapy in patients with glioblastoma: a retrospective single-institute study. Neurooncol Adv. 2021;3(1):vdab041. PMCID:PMC8086242  PMID:33959716 
  24. Diffusion histology imaging differentiates distinct pediatric brain tumor histology. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):4749. PMCID:PMC7910493  PMID:33637807 
  25. Sex differences in health and disease: A review of biological sex differences relevant to cancer with a spotlight on glioma. Cancer Lett. 2021;498:178-187. PMID:33130315 
  26. Focused Ultrasound-Enhanced Delivery of Intranasally Administered Anti-Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 Antibody to an Intracranial Murine Glioma Model. Pharmaceutics. 2021;13(2). PMCID:PMC7912734  PMID:33535531 
  27. Characterization of focused ultrasound-mediated brainstem delivery of intranasally administered agents. J Control Release. 2020;328:276-285. PMCID:PMC7749082  PMID:32871204 
  28. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound-Based Delivery of Radiolabeled Copper Nanoclusters to Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma. ACS Appl Nano Mater. 2020;3(11):11129-11134. PMCID:PMC8320805  PMID:34337344 
  29. Sex and gender: modifiers of health, disease, and medicine. Lancet. 2020;396(10250):565-582. PMCID:PMC7440877  PMID:32828189 
  30. Sex Differences in Cancer Incidence and Survival: A Pan-Cancer Analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020;29(7):1389-1397. PMID:32349967 
  31. JAM-A functions as a female microglial tumor suppressor in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2020. PMID:32592484 
  32. Pattern of Relapse and Treatment Response in WNT-Activated Medulloblastoma. Cell Rep Med. 2020;1(3). PMCID:PMC7394286  PMID:32743560 
  33. Sex-specific impact of patterns of imageable tumor growth on survival of primary glioblastoma patients. BMC Cancer. 2020;20(1):447. PMCID:PMC7238585  PMID:32429869 
  34. Sex differences in cancer mechanisms. Biol Sex Differ. 2020;11(1):17. PMCID:PMC7161126  PMID:32295632 
  35. Intracranial glioma xenograft model rapidly reestablishes blood-brain barrier integrity for longitudinal imaging of tumor progression using fluorescence molecular tomography and contrast agents. J Biomed Opt. 2020;25(2):1-13. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.25.2.026004  PMID:32112540 
  36. Sexually dimorphic impact of the iron-regulating gene, HFE, on survival in glioblastoma. Neurooncol Adv. 2020;2(1):vdaa001. PMCID:PMC7212901  PMID:32642673 
  37. Gliomas display distinct sex-based differential methylation patterns based on molecular subtype. Neurooncol Adv. 2020;2(1):vdaa002. PMCID:PMC7212920  PMID:32642674 
  38. Sex is an important prognostic factor for glioblastoma but not for nonglioblastoma. Neurooncol Pract. 2019;6(6):451-462. PMCID:PMC6899055  PMID:31832215 
  39. Medulloblastoma has a global impact on health related quality of life: Findings from an international cohort. Cancer Med. 2019. PMID:31755223 
  40. To each, his/her own. Neuro Oncol. 2019;21(10):1217-1218. PMCID:PMC6784261  PMID:31412116 
  41. Recurrent noncoding U1 snRNA mutations drive cryptic splicing in SHH medulloblastoma. Nature. 2019;574(7780):707-711. PMID:31664194 
  42. Females have the survival advantage in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2019;20(4):576-577. PMID:29474647 
  43. Sex differences in GBM revealed by analysis of patient imaging, transcriptome, and survival data. Sci Transl Med. 2019;11(473). PMID:30602536 
  44. Age-specific genome-wide association study in glioblastoma identifies increased proportion of 'lower grade glioma'-like features associated with younger age. Int J Cancer. 2018. PMID:30152087 
  45. Sex-specific gene and pathway modeling of inherited glioma risk. Neuro Oncol. 2018. PMID:30124908 
  46. Focused ultrasound-enabled delivery of radiolabeled nanoclusters to the pons. J Control Release. 2018;283:143-150. PMCID:PMC6035767  PMID:29864474 
  47. Altered hemodynamics contribute to local but not remote functional connectivity disruption due to glioma growth J Cereb Blood Flow Metabolism. 2018. PMID:30334672 
  48. Focused ultrasound combined with microbubble-mediated intranasal delivery of gold nanoclusters to the brain. J Control Release. 2018. PMID:30009893 
  49. Focused Ultrasound Enabled Trans-Blood Brain Barrier Delivery of Gold Nanoclusters: Effect of Surface Charges and Quantification Using Positron Emission Tomography. Small. 2018;e1703115. PMID:29966035 
  50. Sex-specific glioma genome-wide association study identifies new risk locus at 3p21.31 in females, and finds sex-differences in risk at 8q24.21. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):7352. PMCID:PMC5943590  PMID:29743610 
  51. Prospective Feasibility and Safety Assessment of Surgical Biopsy for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma. Neuro Oncol. 2018. PMID:29741745 
  52. Resistance-promoting effects of ependymoma treatment revealed through genomic analysis of multiple recurrences in a single patient. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018;4(2). PMCID:PMC5880262  PMID:29440180 
  53. Females have the survival advantage in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2018;20(4):576-577. PMCID:PMC5909625  PMID:29474647 
  54. 18F-FDOPA PET/MRI for monitoring early response to bevacizumab in children with recurrent brain tumors. Neurooncol Pract. 2018;5(1):28-36. PMCID:PMC5909807  PMID:29692922 
  55. A histone deacetylase 3-dependent pathway delimits peripheral myelin growth and functional regeneration. Nat Med. 2018;24(3):338-351. PMCID:PMC5908710  PMID:29431744 
  56. Cooperative p16 and p21 action protects female astrocytes from transformation. Acta Neuropath Commun. 2018;6(1):12. PMID:29458417 
  57. Programming of Schwann Cells by Lats1/2-TAZ/YAP Signaling Drives Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2018;33(2):292-308.e7. PMCID:PMC5813693  PMID:29438698 
  58. Pediatric low-grade gliomas: a brave new world. Neuro Oncol. 2018;20(2):149-150. PMCID:PMC5777489  PMID:29365202 
  59. Fetal microchimerism in human brain tumors. Brain Pathology. 2017. PMID:28921714 
  60. Geminin deficiency enhances survival in a murine medulloblastoma model by inducing apoptosis of preneoplastic granule neuron precursors. Genes Cancer. 2017;8(9-10):725-744. PMCID:PMC5724806  PMID:29234490 
  61. Sexual dimorphism in glioma glycolysis underlies sex differences in survival. JCI Insight. 2017;2(15). PMID:28768910 
  62. Intertumoral Heterogeneity within Medulloblastoma Subgroups. Cancer Cell. 2017;31(6):737-754.e6. PMID:28609654 
  63. Cell-intrinsic, Bmal1-dependent Circadian Regulation of Temozolomide Sensitivity in Glioblastoma. J Biol Rhythms. 2017;32(2):121-129. PMID:28470120 
  64. Reprogramming Medulloblastoma-Propagating Cells by a Combined Antagonism of Sonic Hedgehog and CXCR4. Cancer Res. 2017;77(6):1416-1426. PMCID:PMC5505622  PMID:28031228 
  65. Targeted detection of genetic alterations reveal the prognostic impact of H3K27M and MAPK pathway aberrations in paediatric thalamic glioma. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016;4(1):93. PMCID:PMC5006436  PMID:27577993 
  66. Olig2-Dependent Reciprocal Shift in PDGF and EGF Receptor Signaling Regulates Tumor Phenotype and Mitotic Growth in Malignant Glioma. Cancer Cell. 2016;29(5):669-83. PMID:27165742 
  67. Intersections at the crossroads: Neurofibromatosis type 1, cAMP, sex, and glioma risk. Mol Cell Oncol. 2016;3(3):e1069917. PMCID:PMC4909402  PMID:27314079 
  68. Prognostic value of medulloblastoma extent of resection after accounting for molecular subgroup: a retrospective integrated clinical and molecular analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(4):484-95. PMCID:PMC4907853  PMID:26976201 
  69. The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:267. PMID:27375425 
  70. Novel chemical library screen identifies naturally occurring plant products that specifically disrupt glioblastoma-endothelial cell interactions. Oncotarget. 2015;6(21):18282-92. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.4957  PMID:26286961 
  71. Sexual selection and cancer biology. Oncotarget. 2015;6(18):15714-5. PMCID:PMC4599216  PMID:26158217 
  72. The cyclic AMP pathway is a sex-specific modifier of glioma risk in type I neurofibromatosis patients. Cancer Res. 2015;75(1):16-21. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1891  PMCID:PMC4286430  PMID:25381154 
  73. WNT activation by lithium abrogates TP53 mutation associated radiation resistance in medulloblastoma. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014;2:174. doi:10.1186/s40478-014-0174-y  PMCID:PMC4297452  PMID:25539912 
  74. Combined VEGF and CXCR4 antagonism targets the GBM stem cell population and synergistically improves survival in an intracranial mouse model of glioblastoma. Oncotarget. 2014;5(20):9811-22. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.2443  PMCID:PMC4259439  PMID:25238146 
  75. Sexually dimorphic RB inactivation underlies mesenchymal glioblastoma prevalence in males. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):4123-33. doi:10.1172/JCI71048  PMCID:PMC4151215  PMID:25083989 
  76. The G protein α subunit Gαs is a tumor suppressor in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma. Nat Med. 2014;20(9):1035-42. doi:10.1038/nm.3666  PMID:25150496 
  77. Recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 in pediatric midline high-grade astrocytoma. Nat Genet. 2014;46(5):462-6. doi:10.1038/ng.2950  PMID:24705250 
  78. Reply: To PMID 24375753. Ann Neurol. 2014;75(5):800-1. PMID:24752946 
  79. A phase II trial of a multi-agent oral antiangiogenic (metronomic) regimen in children with recurrent or progressive cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(4):636-42. doi:10.1002/pbc.24794  PMID:24123865 
  80. Cytogenetic prognostication within medulloblastoma subgroups. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(9):886-96. doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.50.9539  PMCID:PMC3948094  PMID:24493713 
  81. Sex Is a major determinant of neuronal dysfunction in neurofibromatosis type 1. Ann Neurol. 2014;75(2):309-16. PMCID:PMC4172335  PMID:24375753 
  82. PDE7B is a novel, prognostically significant mediator of glioblastoma growth whose expression is regulated by endothelial cells. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107397. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107397  PMCID:PMC4159344  PMID:25203500 
  83. TERT promoter mutations are highly recurrent in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;126(6):917-29. doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1198-2  PMCID:PMC3830749  PMID:24174164 
  84. Subgroup-specific prognostic implications of TP53 mutation in medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013. doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.48.5052  PMID:23835706 
  85. Antiangiogenic agents for nonmalignant brain tumors. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2013;74(3):136-41. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1338262  PMCID:PMC3709924  PMID:24436903 
  86. Growth factor receptor-Src-mediated suppression of GRK6 dysregulates CXCR4 signaling and promotes medulloblastoma migration. Mol Cancer. 2013;12:18. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-12-18  PMCID:PMC3599655  PMID:23497290 
  87. F11R is a novel monocyte prognostic biomarker for malignant glioma. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e77571. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077571  PMCID:PMC3795683  PMID:24147027 
  88. Parent-of-origin in individuals with familial neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway gliomas. Fam Cancer. 2012;11(4):653-6. doi:10.1007/s10689-012-9549-z  PMID:22829012 
  89. Astrocyte TNFR2 is required for CXCL12-mediated regulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation and differentiation within the adult CNS. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;124(6):847-60. doi:10.1007/s00401-012-1034-0  PMCID:PMC3508279  PMID:22933014 
  90. Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes. Nature. 2012;488(7409):49-56. doi:10.1038/nature11327  PMID:22832581 
  91. CXCL12 mediates trophic interactions between endothelial and tumor cells in glioblastoma. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33005. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033005  PMCID:PMC3299723  PMID:22427929 
  92. Oligodendrogliomas in children. J Neurooncol. 2012;106(2):377-82. doi:10.1007/s11060-011-0674-6  PMID:21842314 
  93. Suppression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 expression is a feature of classical GBM that is required for maximal growth. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10(1):156-66. doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-11-0411  PMCID:PMC3262072  PMID:22086906 
  94. CXCR4 activation defines a new subgroup of Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma. Cancer Res. 2012;72(1):122-32. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1701  PMCID:PMC3520097  PMID:22052462 
  95. Glioblastoma in children: a single-institution experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80(4):1117-21. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.03.013  PMID:21220190 
  96. Radiation therapy for pilocytic astrocytomas of childhood. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79(3):829-34. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.11.015  PMID:20421157 
  97. Postoperative imaging surveillance in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6(4):346-52. doi:10.3171/2010.7.PEDS10129  PMID:20887107 
  98. CXCL12 alone is insufficient for gliomagenesis in Nf1 mutant mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;224(1-2):108-13. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.05.002  PMCID:PMC2910179  PMID:20554030 
  99. Cyclic AMP suppression is sufficient to induce gliomagenesis in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis-1. Cancer Res. 2010;70(14):5717-27. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3769  PMCID:PMC2905483  PMID:20551058 
  100. Brainstem glioma presenting as pruritus in children with neurofibromatosis-1. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;31(12):972-6. doi:10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181b8701f  PMID:19935099 
  101. Targeting the leukemia microenvironment by CXCR4 inhibition overcomes resistance to kinase inhibitors and chemotherapy in AML. Blood. 2009;113(24):6215-24. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-05-158311  PMCID:PMC2699240  PMID:18955566 
  102. Morphine increases brain levels of ferritin heavy chain leading to inhibition of CXCR4-mediated survival signaling in neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29(8):2534-44. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5865-08.2009  PMCID:PMC2664553  PMID:19244528 
  103. Intensive multimodality treatment for children with newly diagnosed CNS atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(3):385-9. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.7724  PMCID:PMC2645855  PMID:19064966 
  104. Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(23):7717-25. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0827  PMCID:PMC2615415  PMID:19047098 
  105. Feasibility of small animal cranial irradiation with the microRT system. Med Phys. 2008;35(10):4735-43. doi:10.1118/1.2977762  PMCID:PMC2736759  PMID:18975718 
  106. Use of thalidomide to diminish growth velocity in a life-threatening congenital intracranial hemangioma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;2(2):125-9. doi:10.3171/PED/2008/2/8/125  PMCID:PMC2737696  PMID:18671617 
  107. Rethinking brain tumors: the fourth Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium nervous system tumors workshop. Cancer Res. 2008;68(14):5508-11. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0703  PMCID:PMC2678167  PMID:18632599 
  108. Pathological expression of CXCL12 at the blood-brain barrier correlates with severity of multiple sclerosis. Am J Pathol. 2008;172(3):799-808. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2008.070918  PMCID:PMC2258272  PMID:18276777 
  109. Preclinical cancer therapy in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis-1 optic glioma. Cancer Res. 2008;68(5):1520-8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5916  PMID:18316617 
  110. Spatiotemporal differences in CXCL12 expression and cyclic AMP underlie the unique pattern of optic glioma growth in neurofibromatosis type 1. Cancer Res. 2007;67(18):8588-95. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2220  PMID:17875698 
  111. Blocking CXCR4-mediated cyclic AMP suppression inhibits brain tumor growth in vivo. Cancer Res. 2007;67(2):651-8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2762  PMID:17234775 
  112. The role of surgical biopsy in the diagnosis of glioma in individuals with neurofibromatosis-1. Neurology. 2006;67(8):1509-12. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000240076.31298.47  PMID:17060590 
  113. Widespread CXCR4 activation in astrocytomas revealed by phospho-CXCR4-specific antibodies. Cancer Res. 2005;65(24):11392-9. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0847  PMID:16357147 
  114. A feasibility trial of antiangiogenic (metronomic) chemotherapy in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive cancer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005;27(11):573-81. PMID:16282886 
  115. Perfusion MRI of U87 brain tumors in a mouse model. Magn Reson Med. 2004;51(5):893-9. doi:10.1002/mrm.20029  PMID:15122670 
  116. A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(23):13513-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.2235846100  PMCID:PMC263845  PMID:14595012 
  117. Cerebellar proteoglycans regulate sonic hedgehog responses during development. Development. 2002;129(9):2223-32. PMID:11959830 
  118. BDNF stimulates migration of cerebellar granule cells. Development. 2002;129(6):1435-42. PMID:11880352 
  119. Successful antiangiogenic therapy of giant cell angioblastoma with interferon alfa 2b: report of 2 cases. Pediatrics. 2002;109(2):E37. PMID:11826247 
  120. SDF-1 alpha induces chemotaxis and enhances Sonic hedgehog-induced proliferation of cerebellar granule cells. Development. 2001;128(11):1971-81. PMID:11493520 
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  129. A Histone Deacetylase 3-Dependent Pathway Delimits Peripheral Myelin Growth and 2 Functional Regeneration Nat Med. PMID:29431744 
  130. Sex Differences in GBM revealed by analysis of patient imaging, transcriptome and survival data. Sci Transl Med. 11. PMID:30602536 
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