Charles Canter, M.D.

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Lois B. Tuttle and Jeanne B. Hauck Chair in Pediatric Cardiology Professor of Pediatrics
Transplant Center Director
CardiologyCardiac Transplant Program

phone: (314) 454-6095


  • BS, Brown University1974
  • MSc, Brown University1976
  • MD, Saint Louis University School of Medicine1979


  • Intern, St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO1979 - 1980
  • Assistant Resident, St. Louis Children's Hospital1980 - 1982
  • Resident-Fellow, St. Louis Children's Hospital1982 - 1984

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1980 - PresNational Board of Medical Examiners
  • 1984 - PresAmerican Board of Pediatrics
  • 1988 - PresAPB, Sub-Board of Pediatric Cardiology, recertified 1995,recertified 2002,recertified 2015
  • 2022 - PresMO, Medical License
  • 2022 - PresNE
  • 2022IL, Medical License

Honors and Awards

  • Fellowship, American Heart Association Seminar on Cardiovascular Epidemiology - Pres
  • Upjohn Achievement Award1979
  • Best Doctors in America2003
  • Medical Honoree, American Heart Association, Heartland Affiliate2004
  • New endowed professorship from St. Louis Children’s Hospital – The Lois B. Tuttle and Jeanne B. Hauck Chair in Pediatrics.2012 - Pres
  • Parkway School District Hall of Fame2016 - Pres
  • Lifetime Achievement Award, Pediatric Heart Transplant Society, November 20212021

Recent Publications view all (236)

  1. Enigma wrapped in a conundrum: Obesity and hyperlipidemia in pediatric heart transplantation Pediatr Transplant. 2022. PMID:35170160 
  2. Enigma wrapped in a conundrum: Obesity and hyperlipidemia in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2022;26(5):e14254. PMID:35170160 
  3. Heterogeneous outcomes of liver disease after heart transplantation for a failed Fontan procedure. Pediatr Transplant. 2021;25(8):e14094. PMID:34296503 
  4. Valsartan in early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a randomized phase 2 trial Nature Medicine. 2021;1818-1824. PMID:34556856 
  5. Pediatric and adult dilated cardiomyopathy are distinguished by distinct biomarker profiles Pediatric Research. 2021;206-215. PMID:34404929 
  6. Genetic Causes of Cardiomyopathy in Children: First Results From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Genes Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021;10(9):e017731. PMCID:PMC8200745  PMID:33906374 
  7. The genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy American Journal Human Genetic. 2021;282-298. PMID:35026164 
  8. Trends in Sodium Intake in Children and Adolescents in the US and the Impact of US Department of Agriculture Guidelines J Pediatr. 2020. PMID:32600669 
  9. First year outcomes for low immunologic risk pediatric heart trasplant recipients managed with a steroid avoidance protocol: results from a multicenter prospective cohort study(CTOTC-4). I Heart Lung Transplant. 2020;972-981. 
  10. Baseline characteristics of the Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evoltion in early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Cohort. Circ Heart failure. 2019. PMID:31813281 
  11. Hospital readmission following pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2019;23(7):e13561. PMID:31483086 
  12. A Recipient Risk Prediction Tool for Short-term Mortality After Pediatric Heart Transplantation. Transplantation. 2019;103(11):2434-2439. PMID:30801538 
  13. Long-term outcomes after transplantation after support with a pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device. Journal of Heart Lung Transplant. . 2019;38(4):449-455. PMID:30466802 
  14. Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy: Study Design and Recruitment Results from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 2019;53:1-10. PMCID:PMC6863618  PMID:31745384 
  15. Left Ventricular Strain Is Abnormal in Preclinical and Overt Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Cardiac MR Feature Tracking. Radiology. 2019;290(3):640-648. PMCID:PMC6394738  PMID:30561279 
  16. Moderate-severe primary graft dysfunction after pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2019;23(2):e13340. PMID:30609166 
  17. Center volume and outcomes in pediatric heart transplantation-Bigger is better until it isn't. Am J Transplant. 2018;18(12):2843-2844. PMID:30040193 
  18. Current Topics and Controversies in Pediatric Heart Transplantation: Proceedings of the Pediatric Heart Transplantation Summit 2017. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2018;9(5):575-581. PMID:30157743 
  19. Early stroke post-heart transplant is associated with decreased survival in children. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2018;37(6):733-739. PMID:29395751 
  20. Worldwide Experience of a Durable Centrifugal Flow Pump in Pediatric Patients 2018. PMID:29551744 
  21. Impact of routine surveillance biopsy intensity on the diagnosis of moderate to severe cellular rejection and survival after pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2018;22(3):e13131. PMCID:PMC5903932  PMID:29377465 
  22. Association Between Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase (TPMT) Genetic Variants and Infection in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Treated With Azathioprine: A Multi-Institutional Analysis Journal of Pediatric Parmacol Therapeutics. 2018. PMID:29720911 
  23. Pediatric heart transplantation across a positive crossmatch: First year results from the CTOTC-04 multi-institutional study American Journal of Transplant. 2018. PMID:29673058 
  24. Prevalence and Progression of Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Children and Adolescents with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2018. PMID:29622585 
  25. No Obesity Paradox in Pediatric Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy. JACC Heart Fail. 2018;6(3):222-230. PMCID:PMC5834393  PMID:29428438 
  26. Study rationale, design, and pretransplantation alloantibody status: A first report of Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children-04 (CTOTC-04) in pediatric heart transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2018. PMID:29446208 
  27. Incidence, characterization, and impact of newly detected donor-specific anti-HLA antibody in the first year after pediatric heart transplantation: A report from the CTOTC-04 study American Journal of Transplant. 2018. PMID:29442424 
  28. Left Atrial structure and function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sarcomere mutation carriers with and without left ventricular hypertrophy. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2017;19(1):107. PMCID:PMC5745877  PMID:29284499 
  29. Survival Without Cardiac Transplantation Among Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(21):2663-2673. PMCID:PMC5726578  PMID:29169474 
  30. A novel surgical approach to mechanical circulatory support in univentricular infants Ann Thorac Surg. 2017. PMID:28720202 
  31. Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress and fibrosis in preclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Open Heart. 2017;4(2):e000615. PMCID:PMC5687543  PMID:29177058 
  32. Berlin Heart EXCOR use in patients with congenital heart disease J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017. PMID:28259596 
  33. Design for the sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) compared with enalapril study of pediatric patients with heart failure due to systemic left ventricle systolic dysfunction (PANORAMA-HF study). American Heart Journal. 2017. PMID:29129252 
  34. End-stage renal disease after pediatric heart transplantation: A 25-year national cohort study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017. PMCID:PMC5880747  PMID:29055603 
  35. Outcomes and Trends of Ventricular Assist Device Selection in Children with End-Stage Heart Failure. ASAIO J. 2017;63(4):464-469. PMID:28009713 
  36. The Effects of Center Volume on Mortality in Pediatric Heart Transplantation-The Rest of the Story. American Journal of Transplant. 2017. PMID: 28251816 
  37. The influence of race and common genetic variations on outcomes after pediatric heart transplantation. Am J Transplant 2017 17; 1525-39. Am J Transplant 2017. 2017;1525-1539. PMID:27931092 
  38. The Burden of Early Phenotypes and the Influence of Wall Thickness in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mutation Carriers: Findings From the HCMNet Study. JAMA Cardiol. 2017;2(4):419-428. PMCID:PMC5541992  PMID:28241245 
  39. Fontan Patient Survival After Pediatric Heart Transplantation Has Improved in the Current Era. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;103(4):1315-1320. PMID:27863728 
  40. Pediatric and adult dilated cardiomyopathy represent distinct pathologic JCI Insight. 2017;14. PMID:28724792 
  41. Berlin Heart post approval outcomes in North America ASAIO J. 2017;63:193-197. PMID:28234657 
  42. Differences in presentation and outcomes between children with familial dilated cardiomyopathy and children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: A report from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry Study Group Circ Heart Failure. 2017. PMID:28193717 
  43. Differences in Presentation and Outcomes Between Children With Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Children With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Report From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry Study Group. Circ Heart Fail. 2017;10(2). PMCID:PMC5516533  PMID:28193717 
  44. The impact of age in the incidence and prevalence of moderate to severe cellular rejection detected by routine surveillance biopsy in pediatric heart transplantation J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017;36:451-456. PMID:27865735 
  45. Fitting Heart Transplantation to Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Square Peg in a Round Hole? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68(9):918-20. PMID:27561765 
  46. Systolic-diastolic functional coupling in healthy children and in those with dilated cardiomyopathy. Journal of Applied physiology. 2016. PMID:26940654 
  47. Autoimmunity Against the Heart and Cardiac Myosin in Children With Myocarditis. J Card Fail. 2016;22(7):520-8. PMID:26941007 
  48. Improved survival after heart transplant for failed Fontan patients with preserved ventricular function. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35(7):877-83. PMID:27068035 
  49. Is Endomyocardial Biopsy a Safe and Useful Procedure in Children with Suspected Cardiomyopathy? Pediatr Cardiol. 2016. PMID:27272694 
  50. High Frequency of Detection by PCR of Viral Nucleic Acid in The Blood of Infants Presenting with Clinical Myocarditis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2016;37(2):399-404. PMCID:PMC4775434  PMID:26499513 
  51. The 2016 International Society for Heart Lung Transplantation listing criteria for heart transplantation: A 10-year update. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016;35(1):1-23. PMID:26776864 
  52. Early Biventricular Assist Device Use in Children: A Single-Center Review of 31 Patients. ASAIO J. 2015;61(6):688-94. PMID:26186261 
  53. Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes and Outcomes for Children With Left Ventricular Myocardial Noncompaction: Results From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. J Card Fail. 2015;21(11):877-84. PMCID:PMC4630116  PMID:26164213 
  54. The influence of pulmonary resistance on the success of pediatric heart transplantation: Are there still boundaries? Pediatr Transplant. 2015;19(6):580-1. PMID:26215796 
  55. Continuous Flow Device Support in Children Using the HeartWare HVAD: 1,000 Days of Lessons Learned From a Single Center Experience. ASAIO J. 2015. doi:10.1097/MAT.0000000000000253  PMID:25967955 
  56. Contemporary cardiac issues in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in collaboration with Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy. Circulation. 2015;131(18):1590-8. PMCID:PMC4573596  PMID:25940966 
  57. Pediatric Quality of Life while Supported with a Ventricular Assist Device. Congenit Heart Dis. 2015. doi:10.1111/chd.12260  PMID:25864509 
  58. Predicting graft loss by 1 year in pediatric heart transplantation candidates: an analysis of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database. Circulation. 2015;131(10):890-8. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.009120  PMID:25587099 
  59. Outpatient management of intra-corporeal left ventricular assist device system in children: a multi-center experience. Am J Transplant. 2015;15(2):453-60. doi:10.1111/ajt.13003  PMID:25612114 
  60. Successful bridge through transplantation with berlin heart ventricular assist device in a child with failing fontan. Ann Thorac Surg. 2015;99(2):707-9. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.04.064  PMID:25639417 
  61. Intravenous home inotropic use is safe in pediatric patients awaiting transplantation. Circ Heart Fail. 2015;8(1):64-70. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001528  PMID:25472966 
  62. Prediction of sarcomere mutations in subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014;7(6):863-71. doi:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.002411  PMCID:PMC4237712  PMID:25228707 
  63. B-type natriuretic peptide trends after pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2014. PMID:24922348 
  64. Echocardiographic normalization in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: rsults from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. J Am Coll cardiol. 2014;63:1405. 
  65. Liver cirrhosis in fontan patients does not affect one year post-heart transplant mortality or markers of liver function J Heart Lung Transplant. 2014;33:170. 
  66. Tissue Doppler septal Tei index indicates severity of illness in pediatric patients with congestive heart failure. Pediatr cardiol. 2014;35:411. 
  67. A Multicenter study of primary graft failure after infant heart transplantation: impact extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on outcomes. Pediatr transplant. 2014;18:72. 
  68. Recovery of echocardiographic function in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: results from the pediatric cardiomyopathy registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(14):1405-13. PMCID:PMC4030008  PMID:24561146 
  69. Variability of M-mode versus two-dimensional echocardiography measurements in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014;35(4):658-67. doi:10.1007/s00246-013-0835-9  PMID:24265000 
  70. Tissue Doppler septal Tei index indicates severity of illness in pediatric patients with congestive heart failure. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014;35(3):411-8. PMCID:PMC3944049  PMID:24061276 
  71. Liver cirrhosis in Fontan patients does not affect 1-year post-heart transplant mortality or markers of liver function. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2014;33(2):170-7. PMCID:PMC3985609  PMID:24365764 
  72. Diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis in children in the current era. Circulation. 2014;129(1):115-28. PMID:24396015 
  73. Risk stratification at diagnosis for children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an analysis of data from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. Lancet. 2013;382(9908):1889-97. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61685-2  PMCID:PMC4007309  PMID:24011547 
  74. Heart transplantation in pediatric cardiomyopathies. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2013;11(12):1677-90. PMID:24215197 
  75. Predictors of disease progression in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6(6):1214-22. PMCID:PMC4111626  PMID:24132734 
  76. Post-transplant outcomes of children bridged to transplant with the Berlin Heart EXCOR Pediatric ventricular assist device. Circulation. 2013;128(11 Suppl 1):S24-31. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000446  PMID:24030413 
  77. Measurement of donor-specific HLA antibodies following plasma exchange therapy predicts clinical outcome in pediatric heart and lung transplant recipients with antibody-mediated rejection. J Clin Apher. 2013;28(4):301-8. doi:10.1002/jca.21270  PMID:23426730 
  78. Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric ventricular assist device for bridge to heart transplantation in US children. Circulation. 2013;127(16):1702-11. PMID:23538380 
  79. Predictors of disease progression in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ Heart fail. 2013;6:1214. 
  80. Post-transplant outcomes of children bridged to transplant with the Berlin Heart Excor/Pediatric ventricular Device Circulation. 2013;128(S24):31. 
  81. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2163-96. PMID:23245607 
  82. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2197-223. PMID:23245608 
  83. Could contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI potentially be used to screen pediatric cardiac transplant patients for transplant coronary artery disease? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;10(12):1459-61. doi:10.1586/erc.12.149  PMID:23253269 
  84. Noninvasive detection of transplant coronary artery disease with contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI in pediatric cardiac transplants. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(11):1234-5. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2012.06.001  PMID:22749830 
  85. Human polyomaviruses in children undergoing transplantation, United States, 2008-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(10):1676-9. doi:10.3201/eid1810.120359  PMCID:PMC3471627  PMID:23017293 
  86. Outcomes of restrictive cardiomyopathy in childhood and the influence of phenotype: a report from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. Circulation. 2012;126(10):1237-44. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.104638  PMID:22843787 
  87. Has late rejection decreased in pediatric heart transplantation in the current era? A multi-institutional study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(9):980-6. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2012.05.016  PMID:22884385 
  88. Trends in the indications and survival in pediatric heart transplants: a 24-year single-center experience in 307 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94(3):807-15; discussion 815-6. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.02.052  PMID:22632881 
  89. Renal function and genetic polymorphisms in pediatric heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(9):1003-8. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2012.05.010  PMCID:PMC3428223  PMID:22789135 
  90. Early predictors of survival to and after heart transplantation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2012;126(9):1079-86. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.011999  PMID:22800850 
  91. Prospective trial of a pediatric ventricular assist device. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(6):532-41. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1014164  PMID:22873533 
  92. The ventricular volume variability study of the Pediatric Heart Network: study design and impact of beat averaging and variable type on the reproducibility of echocardiographic measurements in children with chronic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012;25(8):842-854.e6. doi:10.1016/j.echo.2012.05.004  PMID:22677278 
  93. Early survival after heart transplant in young infants is lowest after failed single-ventricle palliation: a multi-institutional study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(5):509-16. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2011.12.013  PMID:22325692 
  94. Failed Fontan heart transplant candidates with preserved vs impaired ventricular ejection: 2 distinct patient populations. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(5):545-7. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2012.02.003  PMID:22381208 
  95. A risk-prediction model for in-hospital mortality after heart transplantation in US children. Am J Transplant. 2012;12(5):1240-8. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03932.x  PMID:22300640 
  96. Endomyocardial biopsy and selective coronary angiography are low-risk procedures in pediatric heart transplant recipients: results of a multicenter experience. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(4):398-409. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2011.11.019  PMCID:PMC3307902  PMID:22209354 
  97. Can adult heart failure regimens be applied to children: what works and what does not? Curr Opin Cardiol. 2012;27(2):98-107. PMID:22249216 
  98. Incidence of and risk factors for sudden cardiac death in children with dilated cardiomyopathy: a report from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(6):607-15. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.10.878  PMCID:PMC3280885  PMID:22300696 
  99. Extracardiac complications of the Fontan circuit. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42(2):233-41. doi:10.1007/s00247-011-2225-x  PMID:21863291 
  100. ABO-incompatible heart transplantation: analysis of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study (PHTS) database. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31(2):173-9. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2011.11.013  PMID:22305379 
  101. Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast associated with portosystemic shunt due to persistent patent ductus venosus. Congenit Heart Dis. 2012;7(3):E18-21. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0803.2011.00587.x  PMID:22129147 
  102. Risk factors for late renal dysfunction after pediatric heart transplantation: a multi-institutional study. Pediatr Transplant. 2011;15(7):699-705. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01564.x  PMCID:PMC3201752  PMID:22004544 
  103. Outcomes after listing for primary transplantation for infants with unoperated-on non-hypoplastic left heart syndrome congenital heart disease: a multi-institutional study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30(9):1023-32. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2011.03.020  PMID:21550823 
  104. Competing risks for death and cardiac transplantation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy: results from the pediatric cardiomyopathy registry. Circulation. 2011;124(7):814-23. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.973826  PMCID:PMC3199969  PMID:21788591 
  105. Preventing thrombosis after the Fontan procedure not there yet. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(6):652-3. PMID:21798430 
  106. Recent clinical and translational research on pediatric myocarditis. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 2011;32(1):15-18. PMCID:PMC3649092  PMID:23667302 
  107. Preventing thrombosis after the Fontan procedure not there yet. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;652-3. PMID:21798430  
  108. The impact of heart failure severity at time of listing for cardiac transplantation on survival in pediatric cardiomyopathy. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30(7):755-60. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2011.01.718  PMCID:PMC3110638  PMID:21419658 
  109. Gene polymorphisms impact the risk of rejection with hemodynamic compromise: a multicenter study. Transplantation. 2011;91(12):1326-32. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e31821c1e10  PMID:21659963 
  110. Acute myocarditis in children. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011;9(6):771-83. PMID:21714608 
  111. Impact of pulmonary vascular resistances in heart transplantation for congenital heart disease. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2011;7(2):59-66. PMCID:PMC3197090  PMID:22548028 
  112. Report from a consensus conference on antibody-mediated rejection in heart transplantation. J Heart