Alexis M. Elward, M.D., M.P.H.

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Professor of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases

phone: (314) 454-6050

Clinical Interests

Dr. Elward is the Medical Director of Infection Control for Saint Louis Children's Hospital. She also serves on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Hospital Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee (HICPAC) and is the HICPAC liaison to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Dr. Elward's research interests center around the epidemiology and outcomes of nosocomial infections in children, including hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia and antibiotic resistant organisms.


  • BA, Loyola College1988
  • MD, University of Maryland School of Medicine1994
  • MPH, St. Louis University School of Public Health2006


  • Resident, St. Louis Children's Hospital1994 - 1997
  • Chief Resident, St. Louis Children's Hospital1997 - 1998
  • Fellow, Washington Uniersity School of Medicine1998 - 2001
  • Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certification2006

Licensure and Board Certification

  • 1996 - PresMO, Physician and Surgeon
  • 1998American Board of Pediatrics (recertified 2005 and 2012)
  • 2001Pediatric Infectious Diseases Subspecialy Certificaton (recertified 2008)

Honors and Awards

  • National Merit Scholarship Finalist1984
  • Valedictorian, Martin Spalding High School, Glen Burnie, MD1984
  • Marion Burke Knott Full Tuition Scholarship, Loyola College, Baltimore, MD1984 - 1988
  • Ayers Philosophy Award1988
  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Fellowship Award1999
  • Saint Louis University School of Public Health Academic Achievement Award2006
  • Quality Award, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Bloodstream Infection Prevention Team Co-leader, St. Louis Children’s Hospital2007
  • Synergy Award, Association for Professionals in Infection Control, St. Louis Chapter 73 “For Outstanding and Dedicated Service in Preventing Disease.”2007
  • Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2008
  • Hospital Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee (HICPAC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2008
  • Quality Award, Hand Hygiene Team, St. Louis Children’s Hospital2008
  • Charles C. Shephard Science Award nominee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2009
  • Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Fellow status2009
  • Top 10 percent Washington University Physicians Patient Satisfaction Survey2013
  • Outstanding Commitment to Teaching Award, SLCH Pediatric Housestaff2014
  • Acadamy of Educators2021
  • Outstanding Commitment to Teaching Award2021

Recent Publications view all (50)

  1. Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Infections in NICU Patients: CLABSI. CDC. 2022. doi:   
  2. Infection Prevention during the COVID-19 Pandemic Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America. 2022;36(1):15-37. 
  3. Clostridioides difficile Infections in Inpatient Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Cohort Study Evaluating Risk Factors and Associated Outcomes. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021;10(3):302-308. PMCID:PMC8023311  PMID:32766672 
  4. Delayed Development of Coronary Artery Dilitation in Suspected Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome: More Research Needed. Crit Care Explor. 2020;2(10):e0236. PMCID:PMC7531755  PMID:33063036 
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommendations for the Prevention and Control of Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients: Staphylococcus aureus, 2020. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infection Control Guidelines Website. Published September 14, 2020. Accessed: [DATE] . 2020. 
  6. Ureaplasma urealyticum pyelonephritis presenting with progressive dysuria, renal failure, and neurologic symptoms in an immunocompromised patient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2019;21(2):e13032. PMCID:PMC6542459  PMID:30472777 
  7. Posaconazole-induced hypertension and hypokalemia due to inhibition of the 11β-hydroxylase enzyme. Clin Kidney J. 2018;11(5):691-693. PMCID:PMC6165748  PMID:30289132 
  8. SHEA neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) white paper series: Practical approaches to Clostridioides difficile prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018;39(10):1149-1153. PMID:30160646 
  9. Vancomycin Concentrations in Paraspinal Muscles During Posterior Spinal Fusions for Neuromuscular Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2018;6(6):736-740. PMID:30348352 
  10. Bacterial Infections in Neonates Following Mupirocin-Based MRSA Decolonization: A Multicenter Cohort Study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017;1-7. PMID:28578731 
  11. Antibiotic Prophylaxis Is Associated with Subsequent Resistant Infections in Children with an Initial Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61(5). PMCID:PMC5404513  PMID:28289030 
  12. Reducing peripherally inserted central catheters in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2017;37(4):409-413. PMID:28079867 
  13. The Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae at 4 US Pediatric Hospitals. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017. PMID:28339623 
  14. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the neonatal intensive care unit: an infection prevention and patient safety challenge. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22(7):645.e1-8. PMCID:PMC4987169  PMID:27126609 
  15. Previous Antibiotic Exposure Increases Risk of Infection with Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Pediatric Patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60(7):4237-43. PMCID:PMC4914666  PMID:27139486 
  16. Metagenomic Approach for Identification of the Pathogens Associated with Diarrhea in Stool Specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54(2):368-75. PMCID:PMC4733167  PMID:26637379 
  17. Risk Factors for Craniotomy or Spinal Fusion Surgical Site Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(12):1323-8. PMID:26353030 
  18. Successful use of temocillin as salvage therapy for cervical osteomyelitis secondary to multi-drug resistant Burkholderia cepacia J Pediar Infect Dis Soc. 2014;3(1):77-80. 
  19. Successful Use of Temocillin as Salvage Therapy for Cervical Osteomyelitis Secondary to Multidrug-Resistant Burkholderia cepacia. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014;3(1):77-80. PMID:26624908 
  20. Daily chlorhexidine bathing to reduce bacteraemia in critically ill children: a multicentre, cluster-randomised, crossover trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9872):1099-106. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61687-0  PMID:23363666 
  21. Use of Administrative Data for the Identificationof Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Infection: The Validity ofInfluenza-Specific ICD-9 Codes. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013;2(1):63-6. PMID:26619444 
  22. Oseltamivir dosing in premature infants. J Infect Dis. 2012;206(6):847-50. doi:10.1093/infdis/jis471  PMCID:PMC3572879  PMID:22807525 
  23. Guideline for the prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(10):939-69. doi:10.1086/662025  PMID:21931246 
  24. Risk factors and outcomes of surgical site infection in children. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;212(6):1033-1038.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2011.01.065  PMID:21398150 
  25. Summary of recommendations: Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-related Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(9):1087-99. PMCID:PMC3106267  PMID:21467014 
  26. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(9):e162-93. PMCID:PMC3106269  PMID:21460264 
  27. Opportunities for antibiotic reduction in mechanically ventilated children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011;12(3):282-5. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181f39f0e  PMID:20921920 
  28. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39(4 Suppl 1):S1-34. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2011.01.003  PMID:21511081 
  29. Improving surveillance for pediatric Clostridium difficile infection: derivation and validation of an accurate case-finding tool. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(3):e38-40. doi:10.1097/INF.0b013e3182027c22  PMID:21079527 
  30. General recommendations on immunization --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011;60(2):1-64. PMID:21293327 
  31. Identification and eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the neonatal intensive care unit: results of a national survey. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(7):766-8. doi:10.1086/653615  PMCID:PMC2881181  PMID:20470034 
  32. Updating the guideline development methodology of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Am J Infect Control. 2010;38(4):264-73. PMID:20116133 
  33. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections 2009. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(4):319-26. doi:10.1086/651091  PMID:20156062 
  34. Methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: preventing surgical site infections following plastic surgery. Aesthet Surg J. 2009;29(3):232-44. doi:10.1016/j.asj.2009.01.010  PMID:19608074 
  35. Outbreak of adverse reactions associated with contaminated heparin. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(25):2674-84. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806450  PMID:19052120 
  36. Prevalence of and risk factors for community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus colonization in children seen in a practice-based research network. Pediatrics. 2008;121(6):1090-8. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2104  PMID:18519477 
  37. Acute Allergic-Type Reactions Among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis—Multiple States 2007-2008 MMWR. 2008;57. 
  38. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit patients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(3):409-25, table of contents. doi:10.1128/CMR.00041-06  PMCID:PMC1932752  PMID:17630332 
  39. Effect of nosocomial infections due to antibiotic-resistant organisms on length of stay and mortality in the pediatric intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28(3):299-306. doi:10.1086/512628  PMID:17326020 
  40. Attributable cost of catheter-associated bloodstream infections among intensive care patients in a nonteaching hospital. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(8):2084-9. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000227648.15804.2D  PMID:16763511 
  41. Outbreak of Salmonella javiana infection at a children's hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27(6):586-92. doi:10.1086/504935  PMID:16755478 
  42. Risk factors for nosocomial primary bloodstream infection in pediatric intensive care unit patients: a 2-year prospective cohort study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27(6):553-60. doi:10.1086/505096  PMID:16755473 
  43. Attributable cost of nosocomial primary bloodstream infection in pediatric intensive care unit patients. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):868-72. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0256  PMID:15805357 
  44. Survey of knowledge, beliefs, and practices of neonatal intensive care unit healthcare workers regarding nosocomial infections, central venous catheter care, and hand hygiene. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25(9):747-52. doi:10.1086/502471  PMID:15484799 
  45. Pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22(5):445-6. doi:10.1097/  PMID:12792388 
  46. Rate, risk factors, and outcomes of nosocomial primary bloodstream infection in pediatric intensive care unit patients. Pediatrics. 2002;110(3):481-5. PMID:12205248 
  47. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric intensive care unit patients: risk factors and outcomes. Pediatrics. 2002;109(5):758-64. PMID:11986433 
  48. Steps to Prevent Nosocomial Infections in Children Infections in Medicine. 2002;19:414-419. 
  49. Nosocomial primary bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients in a nonteaching community medical center: a 21-month prospective study. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(8):1329-35. doi:10.1086/322483  PMID:11550117 
  50. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Washington Manual. 
Last updated: 03/30/2022
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